初始含水率和降雨能量对黑土团聚体溅蚀特征的影响
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1.北京林业大学水土保持学院

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(41977060)


Impact of Initial Soil Moisture and Rainfall Energy on Splash Erosion Characteristics of Black Soil Aggregate
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1. School of Soil and Water Conservation,Beijing Forestry University

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    摘要:

    为明晰降雨能量和初始含水率对土壤团聚体溅蚀过程机制的影响,[方法]选取东北典型耕层黑土为研究对象,通过人工模拟降雨试验,探讨不同初始含水率、降雨能量和团聚体初始粒径的团粒溅蚀特征。结果表明[结果]:(1)4种初始粒径黑土团聚体的溅蚀量均在初始含水率4%时最大,其中初始粒径<0.25 mm团聚体溅蚀量是相同降雨能量下各粒径团聚体溅蚀量的1.21~5.50倍。随初始含水率的增加各初始粒级团聚体溅蚀量呈减小趋势,而初始含水率>25%后则呈增大现象。(2)4种初始粒径黑土团聚体的溅蚀量均随降雨能量的增加而增大。相较于降雨能量305 (J/m2)/h(1 m)条件,当降雨能量增加至909 (J/m2)/h(5 m)时,不同初始粒径团聚体溅蚀量分别增加了15.37~20.70倍(<0.25 mm)、52.30~417.60倍(0.25~1 mm)、51.58~359.36倍(1~3 mm)、68.73~777.99倍(3~5 mm)。不同初始粒径黑土团聚体溅蚀量存在明显的阈值现象,当降雨能量达到529 (J/m2)/h(2 m)以上时,不同降雨能量梯度下的溅蚀量存在显著差异。(3)降雨能量是影响溅蚀量的关键因素。降雨能量对溅蚀量的直接效应为0.811,存在显著正向影响,且相关程度最高;初始含水率和团聚体初始粒径的直接效应分别为0.193和0.352,存在显著负向影响。[结论]研究结果可为东北黑土区坡面土壤侵蚀过程机制研究和土壤侵蚀机理模型构建提供科学依据。

    Abstract:

    To investigate the influence of rainfall energy and initial moisture content on the mechanism of soil aggregate splashing erosion, a typical cultivated black soil from the Northeastern region of China was selected as the research object. Artificial simulated rainfall experiments were conducted to explore the splashing erosion characteristics of soil aggregates with varying initial moisture content, rainfall energy, and initial particle size of aggregates. Results showed that: (1) the splash erosion of the soil aggregates was highest when the initial soil moisture level was 4%. Additionally, among the four different initial aggregate size groups, the aggregates with an initial particle size <0.25 mm experienced the greatest splash erosion. In fact, their splash erosion was1.21-5.50 times greater than the other three particle size groups under the same rainfall energy conditions. Furthermore, as the initial soil moisture increased, the splash erosion of the aggregates within each particle size group decreased initially, but then started to increase once the initial soil moisture surpassed 25%. (2) The splash erosion of the black soil aggregates increased with the increase alongside higher rainfall energy. When the rainfall energy reached 909 (J/m2)/h (equivalent to 5 m), the splash erosion of the different-sized black soil aggregates increased significantly. For aggregates with an initial particle size of <0.25 mm, the splash erosion rose by 15.37-20.70 times compared to the rainfall energy of 305 (J/m2)/h (equivalent to 1 m). Similarly, for particle size ranging from 0.25-1 mm, 1-3 mm, and 3-5 mm, the splash erosion increased by 52.30-417.60 times, 51.58-359.36 times, and 68.73-777.99 times, respectively. Notably, a clear threshold was observed for splash erosion of aggregates with different initial particle size. When the rainfall energy exceeded 529 (J/m2)/h (equivalent to 2 m), there was a significant difference in splash erosion between different rainfall energy gradients. (3) The analysis highlighted that rainfall energy was the primary factor affecting splash erosion. It exhibited a direct effect with a correlation coefficient of 0.811, demonstrating a significant positive influence. Conversely, the direct effects of initial soil moisture and initial particle size of aggregations were significantly negative, with correlation coefficients of 0.193 and 0.352, respectively. The research findings can provide a scientific basis for investigating the mechanisms of slope soil erosion in the black soil regions of Northeast China, as well as for establishing process-based models for soil erosion.

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  • 收稿日期:2023-07-27
  • 最后修改日期:2023-09-07
  • 录用日期:2023-09-08
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-01-27
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