东北黑土带土地利用变化特征及生态敏感性评价
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晋一然(2000-),男,在读硕士研究生,主要从事水土保持与GIS空间分析研究。E-mail:Ulisses623@163.com

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国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFD1500803)


Land Use Change Characteristics and Ecological Sensitivity Evaluation in the Black Soil Belt in Northeast China
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    摘要:

    东北黑土带是我国重要的商品粮生产基地,土壤质量退化、水土流失等问题直接影响生态与粮食供给安全,为明晰东北黑土带土地利用变化特征及评价生态敏感性,以2000年、2005年、2010年、2015年、2020年东北黑土带5期土地利用数据为基础,采用转移矩阵、地理探测器、综合生态风险评价等方法,研究景观格局及生态风险变化趋势。结果表明:(1)2000-2020年,研究区未利用地面积增加1 035.7km2,水域面积减少975.8 km2,土地利用变化最明显,耕地是阶段性变化较为剧烈的土地利用方式;(2)不同自然因子对研究区土地利用方式的解释力存在显著差异,气温是土地利用方式变化的主导因素,风速与高程、气温、蒸发量、地温、气压、相对湿度、日照时间的交互作用对土地利用方式变化具有显著的协同增强作用;(3)随时间推移,研究区生态敏感性整体改善,高度敏感区域减少,轻度敏感区域增加,并且出现生态敏感高值区向北移动、低值区向南移动趋势,研究区生态敏感性高值区的形成可能与以风蚀为主的侵蚀作用有关。宏观尺度景观格局变化分析与生态风险评价对区域生态环境保护政策制定及实施具有重要意义。

    Abstract:

    The Northeast Black Soil Belt is a crucial commercial grain production base in China, in recent years, soil quality degradation, soil erosion and other issues have a direct impact on the security of ecology and security of food supply. In order to clarify the characteristics of land use change and evaluate the ecological sensitivity of the Northeast Black Soil Belt, we take the five periods of land use data of the Northeast Black Soil Belt in the years of 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020 as the basis, and use the methods such as transfer matrices, geodetector, and comprehensive ecological risk evaluation to study the landscape pattern and ecological risk change trends. The results were as follows: (1) During the period of 2000—2020,unused land and water land use in the study area changed most obviously, increasing and decreasing by 1 035.7 and 975.8 km2, respectively, and arable land was the land use with more drastic changes in phases; (2) Different natural factors exhibited significant differences in explaining land use types in the study area. Temperature was the dominant factor influencing land use changes, while wind speed showed significant synergistic enhancement when interacting with elevation, temperature, evaporation, geothermy, atmospheric pressure, humidity and daylight duration factors in land use changes. (3) Over time, the overall ecological sensitivity of the study area has improved. Highly sensitive regions had decreased, mildly sensitive regions had increased. Additionally, there was a trend of high-value ecological sensitivity areas moving northward and low-value areas moving southward, the high-value ecological sensitivity regions may be related to erosion which dominated by wind erosion. The analysis of macro-scale landscape pattern changes and ecological risk assessment are of great significance to the formulation and implementation of regional ecological environmental protection policies.

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晋一然, 澹腾辉, 唐琪, 华丽, 郭忠录.东北黑土带土地利用变化特征及生态敏感性评价[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(6):341~349

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  • 收稿日期:2023-06-07
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  • 在线发布日期: 2023-12-27
  • 出版日期: 2023-12-28