聚水阻渗措施对矮砧密植苹果园土壤水分、硝态氮及果树细根的影响
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陈东凯(1996-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事土壤生态研究。E-mail:imchendk@163.com

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陕西省科技重大专项(2020zdzx03-02-01);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503702)


Effects of Water-collecting and Impermeability Measures on Soil Moisture, Nitrate Nitrogen and Fine Roots of Dense Planting Dwarf Rootstock Apple Orchard
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    摘要:

    为提高土壤水肥利用效率,探索适宜渭北地区苹果园发展的聚水阻渗措施。通过大田试验,以矮砧密植苹果园为研究对象,分析不同聚水阻渗措施对土壤水分、硝态氮和果树细根的影响。结果表明:在垂直方向,防渗层、起垄+防渗层、起垄+覆膜+防渗层处理均可有效提高0-40 cm土层土壤含水量、硝态氮含量和细根根长密度,其中,起垄+防渗层和起垄+覆膜+防渗层处理土壤含水量和细根根长密度高于防渗层处理,硝态氮含量则低于防渗层处理。在50-100 cm土层,3种处理措施均降低土壤硝态氮含量,有效缓解硝态氮淋溶累积。在水平方向上,起垄+防渗层和起垄+覆膜+防渗层处理使定植带内(树下、株间)土壤含水量与根长密度平均分别提高15.1%,5.0%,硝态氮含量降低8.6%,防渗层与清耕处理相比无显著差异。在施肥沟内(中间点),3种处理措施使土壤水分含量和细根根长密度增加,土壤硝态氮含量降低,以起垄+覆膜+防渗层处理效果最好,使土壤含水量和细根根长密度分别增加48.6%,48.3%,硝态氮含量降低17.4%。在所有处理措施中,起垄+覆膜+加防渗层处理对果园土壤环境和果树根系的调控效果最佳,研究结果为渭北地区矮砧密植苹果园聚水阻渗技术措施的应用和推广提供参考。

    Abstract:

    In order to improve the utilization efficiency of soil water and fertilizer, the water-collecting and impermeability measures suitable for the development of apple orchards in Weibei area were explored. Through field experiments, the effects of different water-collecting and impermeability measures on soil moisture, nitrate nitrogen and fine roots of dense planting dwarf rootstock apple orchard were analyzed. The results showed that: In the vertical direction, the treatment of seepage control layer, ridging coated, ridging laminating impermeable layer process could effectively increase the soil moisture content, nitrate nitrogen content and fine root length density of 0—40 cm soil layer, and the soil moisture content and fine root length density under the treatment of ridging coated and ridging laminating impermeable layer process were higher than those under the treatment of seepage control layer. The nitrate nitrogen content was lower than that under the treatment of seepage control layer. In the range of 50—100 cm soil layer, three processing measures all reduced soil nitrate nitrogen content, effectively alleviated the leaching accumulation of nitrate nitrogen. In the horizontal direction, the soil water content and root length density in the planting area (under plants and between plants) increased by 15.1%, 5.0%, and the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 8.6% under the treatment of ridging coated and ridging laminating impermeable layer process. But there was no significant difference between the treatment of seepage control layer and clean tillage. In the fertilization area (midpoints), the three treatments increased the soil moisture content and the density of fine root length, and decreased the soil nitrate nitrogen content. Treatment of ridging laminating impermeable layer process had the best effect, which increased the soil moisture content and the density of fine root length by 48.6%,48.3%, respectively, and reduced the nitrate nitrogen content by 17.4%. Among all the measures, the treatment of ridging laminating impermeable layer process had the best control effect on orchard soil environment and fruit tree root system. The results of this study provided a reference for the application and popularization of the water-collecting and impermeability measures in dense planting dwarf rootstock apple orchard in Weibei area.

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陈东凯, 骆汉, 谢永生, 吕佼容.聚水阻渗措施对矮砧密植苹果园土壤水分、硝态氮及果树细根的影响[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(6):298~304

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  • 收稿日期:2023-03-03
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  • 在线发布日期: 2023-12-27
  • 出版日期: 2023-12-28