峰丛洼地岩溶裂隙水土漏失过程室内模拟试验
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中国农业大学水利与土木工程学院

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中图分类号:

S157.1; S152.3

基金项目:

国家重点研发计划


Labratory Simulation on Process of Soil and Water Leakage in Fissures in Karst Peak-cluster Depression
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Affiliation:

College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering,China Argricultural University

Fund Project:

National Key Research and Development Plan Projects of China

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    摘要:

    水土漏失控制是喀斯特地区石漠化防治的关键,但漏失机理及其影响因素尚不明确。通过室内模拟试验,研究了水压力、岩溶裂隙宽度和土壤粒径组成对峰丛洼地水土漏失过程的影响。结果表明,在上覆土层被击穿后,水漏失速率迅速增大后逐渐趋于稳定,而土壤漏失速率则急剧增大至峰值后减小并趋于其稳定值。水土漏失量随水压力或裂隙宽度增大而增大。粒组缺失土壤的团聚体粒径大小和裂隙宽度对水漏失无显著影响,而土壤漏失量则随团聚体粒径增大而减小。小团聚体粒组的土壤漏失量随裂隙宽度增大而减小,而大团聚体粒组的土壤漏失量则随之增大。水压力和裂隙宽度越大、土壤团聚体粒径越小或粒组缺失的土壤,土层越易被击穿。土层被击穿后的水土漏失速率及其漏失量显著大于未击穿土层。研究结果为揭示喀斯特地区水土漏失机理提供了一定的理论基础。

    Abstract:

    Control on soil and water leakage is the key to prevent rocky desertification in karst areas, but their loss mechanism and influence factors are still unclear. The effects of water pressure (0.3, 1.3, 2.3, and 5.5 m water head height), karst fissure width (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm), and soil aggregate size (0 – 1.0, 1.0 – 2.0, 2.0 – 5.0, and 0 – 5.0 mm) on the process of soil and water leakage in karst peak-cluster depression were studied through laboratory simulation tests. The results showed that whether the overlying soil layer is broken down or not determines the rate and amount of soil and water leakage. When overlying soil layer was not broken down, the rate of soil and water leakage decreased with time and gradually approached to be steady. Once the soil layer was broken down, water leakage rate increased sharply and then reached its steady state gradually, while soil leakage rate increased sharply to its peak value and then decreased to its steady one. The greater the water pressure was, the greater the soil and water leakage rates were, and the earlier the time that overlying soil layer was broken down and the rate peak of soil leakage occurred was. The greater the fissure width was, the greater the soil leakage rate was, the smaller the needed water pressure that the soil layer was broken down was, and the earlier the rate peak of soil leakage occurred was. The cumulative amounts of water and soil leakage increased with the increased water pressure or fissure width. The rate and accumulative amount of water leakage from soils that particle groups were missed were not affected significantly by soil aggregate size or fissure width, while that of soil leakage decreased with the increase of soil aggregate size. The cumulative soil leakage from small aggregate grounds decreased with the increase of fissure width but increased from large aggregate grounds accordingly. The greater the water pressure and the fissure width were or the smaller the soil aggregates size was, the more easily the soil layer was broken down. The soil layer with missing soil particle groups was more easily broken down than that with whole particle group. The rates and cumulative amounts of soil and water leakage after soil layer was broken down were significantly greater than that of unbroken soil layer. The research results provide a theoretical basis for revealing the mechanism of soil and water leakage and its control measure choice in karst regions.

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历史
  • 收稿日期:2023-06-09
  • 最后修改日期:2023-07-30
  • 录用日期:2023-08-10
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-01-27
  • 出版日期: