降雨、汇流和坡度对黑土浅沟坡面侵蚀影响的试验研究
DOI:
作者:
作者单位:

1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所;2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所

作者简介:

通讯作者:

中图分类号:

S158

基金项目:

国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)


An Experimental Study on Effects of Rainfall, Inflow and Slope Gradient on Ephemeral Gully Slope Erosion in Chinese Mollisol Region
Author:
Affiliation:

State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau,Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Northwest A F University,Yangling

Fund Project:

  • 摘要
  • |
  • 图/表
  • |
  • 访问统计
  • |
  • 参考文献
  • |
  • 相似文献
  • |
  • 引证文献
  • |
  • 资源附件
  • |
  • 文章评论
    摘要:

    [目的]研究降雨、汇流和坡度对浅沟侵蚀的影响,可为黑土区坡面侵蚀治理提供科学依据。[方法]通过室内模拟降雨和汇流试验,设计2个降雨强度(50和100 mm/h)和2个坡度(3°和7°),并在4种降雨强度和坡度组合下设置了5个依次增加的汇流强度(15、30、45、60、75 L/min);分析了降雨、汇流和坡度及其交互作用对浅沟坡面侵蚀的影响,明确了浅沟侵蚀对坡面侵蚀的贡献。[结果](1)坡度和汇流强度对浅沟坡面侵蚀的影响均大于降雨强度。当降雨强度由50 mm/h增加到100 mm/h时,3°和7°对应的坡面侵蚀量分别增加52.3%~81.8%和29.4%~88.4%;而当坡度从3°增大到7°,50和100 mm/h降雨强度对应的坡面侵蚀量分别增加114.3%~395.5%和130.0%~320.9%;当汇流强度由15 L/min增加至75 L/min,坡面侵蚀量增加4.6~13.5倍。同时,汇流强度增加加剧了坡度对坡面侵蚀的作用,而减弱了降雨强度对坡面侵蚀的影响。(2)降雨、汇流、坡度双因子和三因子交互作用对浅沟坡面侵蚀的影响以汇流强度-坡度交互作用和降雨强度-汇流强度-坡度三者的交互作用的影响最大,其次为降雨强度-汇流强度交互作用,而以降雨强度-坡度的交互作用的影响最小。(3)不同试验条件下,浅沟侵蚀量占坡面侵蚀量的比例平均在85%以上,浅沟侵蚀量占坡面侵蚀量的比例随汇流强度和坡度的增加呈增大趋势。(4)坡面侵蚀速率与水流流速、径流剪切力和水流功率之间均表现为极显著正相关,与阻力系数之间呈显著负相关;且坡面侵蚀速率与水流功率关系最好。

    Abstract:

    Understanding effects of rainfall intensity, inflow rate and slope gradient on hillslope ephemeral gully erosion can provide a scientific basis for controlling soil erosion in the Chinese Mollisol region. This study designed two rainfall intensities (50 and 100 mm/h) and two slope gradients (3° and 7°), and five inflow rates under four combinations of two rainfall intensities and two slope gradients to analyze impacts of rainfall intensity, inflow rate, slope gradient and their interaction on slope soil erosion with ephemeral gully, and to quantify the contribution of ephemeral gully erosion to slope erosion. The results showed as follows: (1) The impact of slope gradient and inflow rate on slope soil erosion was greater than that of rainfall intensity. Under the five inflow rates, when the rainfall intensity increased from 50 mm/h to 100 mm/h, the slope erosion on the slopes of 3° and 7° increased by 52.3%-81.8% and 29.4%-88.4%, respectively; when the slope gradient increased from 3° to 7° , the slope erosion increased by 114.3%-395.5% and 130.0%-320.9%, respectively; when the inflow rate increased from 15 L/min to 75 L/min, the slope erosion increased by 4.6-13.5 times. The increase of inflow rate aggravated slope gradient influmce on slope erosion while weakened rainfall intesisty impacts on slope eroiosn. (2) The effects of rainfall intensity-inflow rate-slope gradient interactions, and inflow rate-slope gradient interactions on slope erosion were the largest impact, followed by the rainfall intensity-inflow rate interaction, and the interaction of rainfall intensity-slope gradient had the lowest impact. Ephemeral gully erosion occupied above 85% of total slope erosion at the different experimental treatments, which increased with inflow rate and slope gradient. (4) The slope erosion rate had positively significant correlations with the flow velocity, shear stress and stream power, while it had negatively significant correlation with the friction coefficient. Compared with the flow velocity and shear stress, the correlation between slope erosion rate and stream power was best.

    参考文献
    相似文献
    引证文献
引用本文
分享
文章指标
  • 点击次数:
  • 下载次数:
  • HTML阅读次数:
  • 引用次数:
历史
  • 收稿日期:2023-06-08
  • 最后修改日期:2023-08-10
  • 录用日期:2023-08-31
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-01-27
  • 出版日期: