黄淮海平原夏玉米需水量和缺水量时空分布特征
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刘栩辰(1997—),男,硕士研究生,主要从事作物生理与水分高效利用研究。E-mail:finaloo@163.com

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S513

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国家现代农业产业技术体系项目(CARS-02-18);河南省自然科学基金面上项目(202300410553);中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(ASTIP);新乡市重大科技专项(ZD2020009)


Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Water Requirement and Water Deficiency of Summer Maize in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
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    摘要:

    为提高黄淮海平原夏玉米的灌溉效率,优化农业资源配置,依据黄淮海平原27个站点70年的试验统计资料,在作物需水量模型、降雨频率分析、作物系数相关理论的基础上,分析不同水文年型夏玉米的需水量和缺水量(即需要补充灌溉的水量)的时空分布。首先,根据各代表点的多年降雨资料,利用皮尔逊—Ⅲ型曲线确定降雨频率分别为25%,50%,75%,95%的4种水文年型及其相应的有效降雨量;其次,利用Penman-Monteith模型计算参考作物需水量,并结合作物系数法估算作物需水量,进而求得在4种水文年型下夏玉米的需水量、缺水量和灌溉需求指数;最后,基于ArcMap 10.7软件对所得到的夏玉米各需水要素进行插值分析,直观地描述黄淮海平原地区夏玉米需水量、缺水量和灌溉需求指数的时空分布特征。结果表明,1951—2020年间,黄淮海平原夏玉米需水量的高值区分布受水文年型变化的影响不大,主要分布在平原中部呈带状分布的区域;缺水量与灌溉需求指数分布特征相似,高值区的范围随干旱程度的升高(水文年型由湿润到干旱)而扩大,且主要分布于平原中部偏北的区域;有效降雨量高值区主要集中在平原东南部,整体分布呈由南至北逐渐递减的趋势。鲁西、冀南、豫北地区夏玉米缺水量高,生产上应以提高水分利用效率为目标;与之相对应的鲁南、苏北和安徽等地,夏玉米对灌溉的依赖低,可以适当地扩大夏玉米种植面积,应以产量为目标。

    Abstract:

    For improving plain irrigation efficiency of summer maize and optimize the allocation of agricultural resources in the Huang-Huai-Hai,based on the statistical data of 70 a of experiments at 27 plain site,the crop water requirement model,rainfall frequency analysis and crop coefficient,on the basis of relevant theories,the spatial and temporal distribution of water demand and water deficiency (i.e.water needed for supplementary irrigation) of summer corn in different hydrological years were analyzed.Firstly,according to the annual rainfall data of each representative point,four hydrological annual patterns with rainfall frequency of 25%,50%,75%,95% and their corresponding effective rainfall were determined by using the Pearson-Ⅲ curve.Secondly,the Penman-Monteith model was used to calculate the reference crop water requirement,and the crop coefficient approach was used to estimate the crop water requirement,and then the water requirement,water deficiency and irrigation demand indexes of summer maize under the four hydrological year patterns were obtained.Finally,interpolation analysis of each water demand factor of summer maize was carried out based on ArcMap10.7,and spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of water demand,water deficiency and irrigation demand index of summer maize in Huang-Huai-hai Plain were visually described.The results showed that from 1951 to 2020,the distribution of the high value area of summer maize water requirement in Huang-Huai-hai Plain was not affected by the annual variation of hydrological pattern,and mainly distributed in the central region of the plain with a zonal distribution.The distribution characteristics of water deficiency index and irrigation demand index were similar.The range of high value area increased with the increase of drought degree (hydrological year pattern changes from wet to drought),and mainly distributed in the north of central plain.The high-value area of effective rainfall was mainly concentrated in the southeast of the plain,and the overall distribution showed a decreasing trend from south to north.The water deficiency of summer maize in western Shandong,southern Hebei and northern Henan was high,so the aim of production should be to improve water use efficiency.Correspondingly,in southern Shandong,Northern Jiangsu and Anhui,the dependence of summer maize on irrigation was low,so the planting area of summer maize can be expanded appropriately and the yield should be taken as the target.

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刘栩辰, 马守田, 黄超, 孟晔, 陈海情, 王鹏飞, 刘战东.黄淮海平原夏玉米需水量和缺水量时空分布特征[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(2):179~186

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  • 收稿日期:2022-09-02
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  • 在线发布日期: 2023-02-24
  • 出版日期: 2023-04-28