文章摘要
高丽超, 郑文魁, 程运龙, 张民, 王淳.长期施用控释掺混尿素对麦田土壤酶活性及养分的影响[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(2):343~350
长期施用控释掺混尿素对麦田土壤酶活性及养分的影响
Effects of Long-term Application of Blended Controlled-release Urea on Soil Enzyme Activities and Nutrients in Stubble Wheat Fields
投稿时间:2022-07-25  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2023.02.040
中文关键词: 控释掺混尿素  土壤酶  土壤养分  长期施肥
英文关键词: blended controlled-release urea  soil enzymes  soil nutrients  long-term fertilization
基金项目:山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2020QD113)
作者单位E-mail
高丽超1, 郑文魁1,2, 程运龙1, 张民1, 王淳1 1. 土肥高效利用国家工程研究中心, 山东农业大学资源与环境学院, 山东 泰安 271018

2. 山东农大肥业科技股份有限公司
, 山东 肥城 271600 
wkzheng2013@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探究秸秆还田条件下长期施用控释掺混尿素对土壤酶活性及养分状况的影响。基于自2008年开始的长期定位施肥田间试验,于2021年小麦返青期、挑旗期、灌浆期和成熟期采集0—20 cm土壤样品,以不施氮肥为对照,研究秸秆还田条件下控释掺混尿素(CRF)和普通尿素(BBF)2种氮肥类型及不施氮(N 0 kg/hm2)、减量(N 120 kg/hm2,N1)、常量(N 240 kg/hm2,N2)和增量(N 360 kg/hm2,N3)4个施氮水平对麦季土壤酶活性及土壤养分的影响,并对指标进行相关性分析。结果表明:相同施氮水平下的控释掺混尿素处理较普通尿素处理土壤蔗糖酶活性提高9.6%~21.0%,纤维素酶活性提高9.0%~31.5%。在小麦返青期和成熟期,控释掺混尿素处理的土壤硝态氮含量显著高于普通尿素处理,提高23.2%~145.0%。在返青期,CRF2处理土壤铵态氮含量较BBF2处理显著提高148.0%;成熟期,各施氮水平的控释掺混尿素处理的土壤铵态氮含量均显著高于普通尿素处理。CRF1和CRF2处理的小麦籽粒产量分别较BBF1和BBF2处理提高9.8%和12.4%。土壤脲酶、过氧化氢酶活性与土壤全氮、有机质、硝态氮含量呈显著正相关关系,过氧化氢酶、纤维素酶活性与速效磷和有效钾含量呈显著负相关关系。秸秆还田配施控释掺混尿素较普通尿素提高小麦生育中后期土壤酶活性,更有利于小麦前、后期速效氮供应,长期施用显著提高土壤有机质含量,可提高土壤的保肥性和缓冲性,培肥土壤,其中以常量控释掺混尿素施肥为最优处理。
英文摘要:
      In order to investigate the effects of long-term application of blended controlled-release urea (CRF) on soil enzyme activities and nutrient status under straw returning condition to the field,soil samples ranging from 0 to 20 cm were collected from the field experiment of long-term positioning fertilization since 2008 at the rejuvenation stage,flag stage,filling stage and maturity stages of wheat in 2021.Without fertilized nitrogen as a control,the effects of CRF and normal urea (BBF),and four application levels that no nitrogen application (N 0 kg/hm2),reduced nitrogen application (N 120 kg/hm2,N1),conventional nitrogen application (N 240 kg/hm2,N2) and increased nitrogen application (N 360 kg/hm2,N3) on soil enzyme activities and soil nutrients in wheat season were studied under straw returning,and the correlation analysis of the indexes was conducted.The results showed that under the same nitrogen application level,soil sucrase activity and cellulase activity were increased by 9.6%~21.0% and 9.0%~31.5% under CRF treatment compared with BBF treatment,respectively.The soil nitrate nitrogen content in CRF treatment was significantly higher than that in BBF treatment at the rejuvenation and maturity stages of wheat,increasing by 23.2%~145.0%.At the rejuvenation stage,the soil NH4+—N content under CRF2 treatment was significantly increased by 148.0% compared with that in BBF2 treatment.At maturity stage,the content of ammonium nitrogn in soil under CRF treatments was significantly higher than that of BBF treatments at all nitrogen application levels.Compared with BBF1 and BBF2,CRF1 and CRF2 treatments increased wheat grain yield by 9.8% and 12.4%,respectively.Soil urease and catalase activities were significantly positively correlated with the contents of soil total nitrogen,organic matter and nitrate nitrogen,while catalase and cellulase activities were significantly negatively correlated with phosphorus and available potassium contents.Straw returning combined with CRF increased soil enzyme activities at the middle and late growth stages of wheat compared with BBF,and was more conducive to the supply of available nitrogen at the early and late growth stages of wheat.Long-term application of straw returning combined with CRF significantly increased soil organic matter content,improved soil fertility retention and buffering,and improved soil fertility.Among them,the optimal treatment was CRF with conventional fertilizer application rate.
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