文章摘要
乔若楠, 程煜, 闫思慧, 罗敏, 张通港, 王春, 张体彬, 冯浩.不同阳离子组成微咸水灌溉对生菜光合和离子吸收特性的影响[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):378~384
不同阳离子组成微咸水灌溉对生菜光合和离子吸收特性的影响
Effect of Saline Water Irrigation with Different Cations Compositions on Lettuce Photosynthesis and Ions Uptake Characteristics
投稿时间:2021-08-27  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.048
中文关键词: 微咸水  光合特性  生菜产量  离子吸收
英文关键词: saline water  photosynthetic characteristics  lettuce yield  ions uptake
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0403303);陕西省重点研发计划一般项目(2019NY-001);中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2452019079)
作者单位E-mail
乔若楠1,2, 程煜1,2, 闫思慧1,2, 罗敏1,2, 张通港1,2, 王春1,2, 张体彬1,3, 冯浩1,3 1. 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100

2. 西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院
, 陕西 杨凌 712100

3. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
, 陕西 杨凌 712100 
zhangtb@ms.iswc.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探究不同微咸水水质对土壤盐分和作物生长的影响,在日光温室条件下,以生菜为供试对象开展盆栽试验,以CaSO4的饱和溶液为对照(CK),向去离子水中添加氯化盐形成不同阳离子组成的微咸水处理(Na+,TNa;Na+/K+比为1:1,TNa-K;K+,TK),各处理添加盐分总摩尔量相同,研究灌溉水中不同阳离子组成对土壤盐分、阳离子含量以及生菜光合特性、离子吸收和生长的影响。结果表明:(1)微咸水灌溉下生菜生长季末(播后80天)各处理0-20 cm土壤饱和提取液电导率(ECe)较播种前和播种后50天显著升高,其中,CK处理显著低于其他处理(P<0.05)。土壤pH在不同处理和不同土层深度上差异均不显著(P>0.05)。生长季末土壤盐分阳离子大多积累在表层,与盐分分布一致。(2)与CK相比,单盐离子胁迫(TNa和TK处理)显著降低生菜净光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度等光合特性(P<0.05),从而降低产量,TNa处理最低;而TNa-K处理光合特性虽显著低于CK处理,但高于TNa和TK处理,说明TNa-K处理的盐分离子组成缓解了单个盐分离子对生菜生长的危害,且生菜产量较TNa和TK处理有所升高,但差异不显著(P>0.05)。(3)与CK相比,TNa和TK分别显著提高生菜叶片中Na+和K+含量;而TNa-K处理叶片Cl-含量虽然高于CK,但显著低于TNa和TK处理(P<0.05)。微咸水中Na+、K+阳离子比为1:1的盐分组成维持了生菜植株的离子平衡,缓解了单个一价阳离子对生菜生长的盐胁效应,而对于单个离子来说,Na+对生菜的毒害作用明显大于K+。研究结果为微咸水灌溉管理提供科学依据。
英文摘要:
      The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different saline water quality on soil salt properties and crop growth, and to provide scientific basis for saline water irrigation management. A pot experiment was carried out for cropping lettuce in the solar greenhouse. Taking the saturated solution of CaSO4 as a control (CK), different chlorides were added to deionized water to form three saline water treatments with different cationic compositions (Na+, TNa; Na+/K+ of 1:1, TNa-K; K+, TK) on the premise of the same total mole concentration added. The soil salt contents, cations contents, and photosynthetic characteristics, ions uptake and growth of lettuce were studied. The results showed that:(1) At the end of lettuce growing season (80 days after sowing, DAS), the electrical conductivity of saturated extract (ECe) of soil at 0-20 cm depth was significantly higher than those before sowing and 50 DAS, where CK was significantly lower than others (P<0.05). The differences of soil pH values were not significant among different treatments and depths (P>0.05). At the end of the growth season, the soil salt cations mostly accumulated on the surface layer and were consistent with the salt distribution. (2) Compared with CK, single salt ion stresses (TNa and TK treatments) significantly reduced the photosynthetic properties, including net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of lettuce (P<0.05), thus resulting in the reduced yield, where the TNa gave the lowest yield per pot. The photosynthetic properties of TNa-K were significantly lower than that of CK, but higher than those of TNa and TK, indicating that TNa-K treatment alleviated the harm of single salt ions to the growth of lettuce. And TNa-K increased yield compared with TNa and TK treatment, but without significantly difference (P>0.05). (3) Compared with CK, TNa and TK significantly increased the Na+ and K+ contents in the lettuce leaves, respectively; while the Cl- content of TNa-K treatment were higher than CK, but significantly lower than TNa and TK (P<0.05). The salt composition with Na+/K+ of 1:1 in saline water could maintain the ion balance of lettuce plants and alleviate the salt stress of single salt ion on lettuce growth, while as for the single ion stress, Na+ should cause the more stress than K+.
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