文章摘要
汪爱霞, 马彦麟, 齐广平, 康燕霞, 银敏华, 汪精海, 贾琼, 唐仲霞, 姜渊博.无芒雀麦与苜蓿混播草地生产力提升的水氮调控模式[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):322~330
无芒雀麦与苜蓿混播草地生产力提升的水氮调控模式
Water and Nitrogen Regulation Patterns for Productivity Improvement of Bromus inermis and Alfalfa Mixed Grassland
投稿时间:2021-09-13  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.041
中文关键词: 水氮调控  喷灌  豆禾混播  产量  品质  主成分分析
英文关键词: water and nitrogen regulation  sprinkling irrigation  bean and grass mixed sowing  yield  quality  principal component analysis
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0400306);甘肃省高校创新基金项目(2020B-131);甘肃省教育厅产业支撑计划项目(2021CYZC-20);甘肃农业大学盛彤笙创新基金项目(GSAU-STS-2021-18);甘肃农业大学水利水电工程学院青年教师科技创新基金项目(SLXY-QN-2019-05)
作者单位E-mail
汪爱霞, 马彦麟, 齐广平, 康燕霞, 银敏华, 汪精海, 贾琼, 唐仲霞, 姜渊博 甘肃农业大学水利水电工程学院, 兰州 730070 qigp@gsau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      针对西北干旱草原区天然草地退化、水土流失严重以及人工草地生产力低下等问题,研究种植模式和水氮调控对牧草产量、品质和水氮利用效率的影响,以期获得高产高效的草地管理模式。以3年生紫花苜蓿和无芒雀麦(2018年播种)为试验材料,分析种植模式(无芒雀麦与苜蓿混播D1,无芒雀麦单播D2)、施氮(纯氮)量(N1:60 kg/hm2;N2:120 kg/hm2)和灌水量(以灌水下限占田间持水量θf的百分比计,轻度亏水 65%θf、中度亏水 55%θf、重度亏水 45%θf分别记为W1、W2、W3,灌水上限均为85%θf)3个因素对牧草产量、品质和水氮利用效率的影响。结果表明:(1)增加灌水量和施氮量有利于牧草株高和茎粗的生长,与W3N1处理相比,W1N2处理混播苜蓿、混播无芒雀麦和单播无芒雀麦三茬平均株高分别增加27.41%,20.26%和26.55%,茎粗分别增加11.32%,4.11%和20.98%;混播对无芒雀麦株高有促进作用,对茎粗有抑制作用。(2)灌水量和施氮量的增加有利于提高牧草产量和品质,W1N2处理牧草年产量和粗蛋白(CP)含量最高,与W3N1处理相比,W1N2处理下混播牧草年产量、CP含量分别增加42.16%,27.00%,单播牧草年产量、CP含量分别增加38.59%,37.26%,混播牧草ADF和NDF分别降低19.56%和33.86%,单播牧草ADF和NDF分别降低21.29%和25.53%。(3)随着灌水量的增加,IWUE和WUE减小,PFPN增大;增加施氮量,混播模式IWUE、WUE和PFPN均减小,单播模式IWUE和PFPN减少,WUE增大。(4)基于主成分分析得出,混播模式轻度亏水(灌水下限65%θf)高氮量(120 kg/hm2)处理综合得分最高,为适宜的水氮管理模式。研究结果可为西北干旱半干旱草原区牧草的种植管理提供理论依据。
英文摘要:
      In response to the problems of natural grassland degradation, serious soil erosion, and low productivity of artificial grassland in arid steppe region of Northwest China, effects of planting patterns, water and nitrogen regulation on forage yield, quality and water and nitrogen use efficiency were investigated in order to obtain a high-yielding and high efficiency grassland management pattern. In this study, triennial alfalfa and Bromus inermis (sown in 2018) were used as experimental materials to analyze planting patterns (mixed alfalfa and B. inermis, unicasted B. inermis; namely D1, D2), the amount of nitrogen application (N 60 kg/hm2, 120 kg/hm2; namely N1, N2), and irrigation water gradient (calculated by the percentage of irrigation water limit to the field water holding capacity, light deficit 65% θf, moderate deficit 55% θf, severe deficit 45% θf, recorded as W1, W2, W3, the upper limit of irrigation is 85% θf) on forage yield, quality and water and nitrogen use efficiency. The results showed that:(1)Increasing irrigation amount and nitrogen application rate was beneficial to the growth of plant height and stem diameter. Compared with W3N1 treatment, the average plant height of mixed alfalfa and B. inermis, unicasted B.inermis increased by 27.41% and 20.26%, 26.55%, and stem diameter increased by 11.32% and 4.11%, 20.98% under W1N2 treatment, and mixed forage had a promoting effect on B. inermis plant height and a suppressing effect on stem diameter. (2) The increase of irrigation amount and nitrogen application rate was beneficial to improve the forage yield and quality. The annual yield and crude protein (CP) content of forage under W1N2 treatment were the highest, and compared with W3N1 treatment, the annual yield and CP content of mixed forage increased by 42.16% and 27.00%, and unicasted forage increased by 38.59% and 37.26%. Respectively, ADF and NDF of mixed forage decreased by 19.56% and 33.86%, and unicasted forage decreased by 21.29% and 25.53%. (3) With the increase of irrigation amount, IWUE and WUE decreased, while PFPN increased. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, IWUE, WUE and PFPN decreased in mixed forage, while IWUE and PFPN decreased and WUE increased in unicast forage. Based on the principal component analysis, the highest combined score of light deficit (irrigation lower limit:65% θf) and high nitrogen (120 kg/hm2) was obtained in the mixed forage, which was a suitable water and nitrogen management pattern in the region. This result can provide a theoretical basis for forage planting management in arid and semi-arid grassland region of Northwest China.
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