文章摘要
盖浩, 刘平奇, 张梦璇, 陈柏旭, 王迎春, 王立刚.黑土坡耕地横坡垄作对减少径流及土壤有机碳流失的作用[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):300~304,311
黑土坡耕地横坡垄作对减少径流及土壤有机碳流失的作用
Effects of Ridge Planting on Reducing Runoff and Soil Organic Carbon Loss in Black Soil Slope
投稿时间:2021-09-16  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.038
中文关键词: 坡耕地  横坡垄作  顺坡垄作  土壤有机碳  玉米产量
英文关键词: sloping farmland  cross-ridge tillage  longitudinal ridge tillage  soil organic carbon  maize yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31770486);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0201801);中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(CAAS-ZDRW202202)
作者单位E-mail
盖浩1, 刘平奇1, 张梦璇1, 陈柏旭1, 王迎春2, 王立刚1 1. 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北京 100081

2. 农业农村部科技发展中心
, 北京 100122 
wangligang@caas.cn 
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中文摘要:
      东北黑土坡耕地受土壤侵蚀和习惯顺坡耕作措施的影响,水土流失严重,土壤有机碳含量呈逐年下降趋势。针对东北黑土坡耕地不同垄作措施水土流失及土壤有机碳变化特征不明确的问题,采用田间定位试验的方法,探究了顺坡垄作和横坡垄作对坡耕地水土流失及土壤有机碳变化的影响。结果表明:(1)横坡垄作相对于顺坡垄作能显著减少径流总量97.1%,减少泥沙总量93.1%,表现出较强的拦截地表径流和泥沙的作用。(2)横坡垄作对比顺坡垄作可减少99.9%的SOC及99.3%的DOC流出耕地,坡肩和坡背是拦截迁移土壤有机碳的主要坡位,其中98.8%的SOC和94.4%的DOC被拦截在坡肩和坡背位置。(3)经过3年的改垄耕种,横坡垄作相对于顺坡垄作显著提高了玉米产量,且主要体现在坡肩和坡背位置(分别显著提高21.2%,19.4%(p<0.05))。因此,横坡垄作对比农民习惯的顺坡垄作具有明显的保水固土、减少有机碳流失和增加产量的多赢效果,可以作为东北黑土坡耕地土壤保护性耕作的推荐措施。
英文摘要:
      Losses of nutrients, water and soil was serious in black soil sloping farmlands in Northeast China, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) decreased year by year due to soil erosion and conventional longitudinal ridge-tillage. However, the characteristics of water and soil losses, and the changes in soil organic carbon under different tillage methods remain unclear. This study explored the impact of longitudinal ridge-tillage and cross-ridge tillage practices on losses of water and soil, and the changes in SOC from sloping farmland based on field experiments. Results showed that:(1) Compared with the longitudinal ridge-tillage, cross-ridge tillage significantly reduced the surface runoff and sediment losses by 97.1% and 93.1%, respectively, showing a strong interception of surface runoff and sediment. (2) The cross-ridge tillage could reduce the losses of SOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the sloping farmland by 99.9% and 99.3%, respectively, and shoulder and back of the slope were two main positions of SOC sequestration, where 98.8% of SOC and 94.4% of DOC were sequestrated. (3) The cross-ridge tillage significantly increased the yield of spring maize, especially at the shoulder (by 21.2%) and back (by 19.4%) positions (both p<0.05), based on a 3-year cross-ridge tillage. Therefore, compared with the conventional longitudinal ridge-tillage, the cross-ridge tillage is a multi-win practice to reduce soil erosion and SOC losses, and increase the productivity, which can serve as a conservation measure for the protection of black soil sloping farmlands in Northeast China.
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