文章摘要
李皓, 甄怡铭, 张子旋, 王艳群, 付帅, 刘晓明, 甄文超, 门明新, 彭正萍.减氮配施有机物质对麦田土壤性质和小麦产量的影响[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):166~172
减氮配施有机物质对麦田土壤性质和小麦产量的影响
Effects of Nitrogen Reduction Combined with Organic Matter on Soil Properties and Wheat Yield
投稿时间:2021-09-18  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.022
中文关键词: 减氮  有机物质  小麦  产量  土壤性质
英文关键词: nitrogen reduction  organic matter  wheat  yield  soil properties
基金项目:河北省重点研发计划项目(19226425D);河北省人才工程培养项目(A201910003)
作者单位E-mail
李皓1, 甄怡铭1, 张子旋1, 王艳群1, 付帅1, 刘晓明1, 甄文超2, 门明新1, 彭正萍1,2 1. 河北农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 河北省农田生态环境重点实验室, 河北 保定 071001

2. 华北作物改良与调控国家重点实验室
, 河北 保定 071001 
pengzhengping@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      探究氮肥减量配施有机物质的情况下对氮素利用状况及土壤肥力和小麦产量的影响,为我国华北平原区小麦生产中提高氮肥利用效率、实现节肥增效提供理论基础。通过田间试验,设置5个处理:不施氮肥(CK)、农民习惯施氮肥(FN)、减氮20% (80% FN)、减氮20%+生物有机肥(80% FN+OM)、减氮20%+生物炭(80% FN+BC),研究小麦生长关键期土壤容重、有机质、NO3--N和土壤微生物多样性的变化,测定小麦产量并计算氮素利用效率。结果表明,土壤容重受施入有机物质影响显著,成熟期0-20,20-40 cm的80% FN+OM、80% FN+BC的土壤容重较80% FN分别下降 3.83%~4.58%和2.96%~5.07%。成熟期0-40 cm的土壤有机质均以80% FN+OM最高,较其他施氮肥处理提高2.13%~18.81%。土壤NO3--N受施氮肥影响显著,挑旗期80% FN+OM和80% FN+BC处理的0-40 cm土壤NO3--N较高;灌浆期80% FN+BC处理的0-80 cm土层NO3--N均较高;而成熟期FN处理的土壤NO3--N残留较高。配施有机物质能提高土壤微生物多样性,增加细菌OUT数量,平衡各菌门间的相对丰度,使土壤微生态环境更加稳定。80% FN+OM的小麦产量和氮肥农学效率分别较其他施氮处理提高1.09%~7.34%和2.78%~41.49%。因此,减氮合理配施生物有机肥和生物炭能够改善土壤理化性质、提高土壤微生物多样性,增加小麦产量,且生物有机肥效果优于生物炭,说明科学施用氮肥搭配有机物质可以促进土壤的可持续利用。
英文摘要:
      The nitrogen (N) use status and soil fertility and wheat yield were studied under the condition of reduced urea N input and combined with organic matter, to provide a theoretical basis for winter wheat cultivation in the North China Plain, in terms of improving the N use and fertilizer efficiencies. Field trials were carried out with five treatments:no N application (CK), farmer N application (FN), 20% reduction N application (80% FN), 20% reduction N application with bio-organic manure (80% FN+OM), and 20% reduction N application with biochar (80% FN+BC). In the study, the responses of soil bulk density, organic matter, NO3--N, microbial diversity, yield, and N utilization of wheat were measured under winter wheat-maize rotation systematically. The results showed that soil capacity was significantly influenced by the application of organic matter. Compared with 80% FN, the soil bulk density in 80% FN+OM and 80% FN+BC were decreased by 3.83%~4.58% and 2.96%~5.07% in 0-20 and 20-40 cm at maturity stage, respectively. Soil organic matter content of 80% FN+OM was higher than other treatments, and greater by 2.13%~18.81% with 80% FN+OM than N fertilizer treatments in 0-40 cm at maturity stage. Soil NO3--N was significantly affected by the application of N fertilizer. Soil NO3--N was higher in 80% FN+OM and 80% FN+BC than other treatments in 0-40 cm at flag raising stage. Soil NO3--N content with 80% FN+BC was higher than other treatments in 0-80 cm at grouting stage. The soil NO3--N residues of FN treatment was higher than other treatments at maturity. Combined application of organic matter could improve soil microbial diversity, increase the number of bacteria OTU, balance the relative abundance of bacteria, and stabilize the soil micro ecological environment. The wheat yield and N agronomic efficiency with 80% FN+OM were 1.09%~7.34% and 2.78%~41.49% higher than other N application treatments, respectively. In the perspective of soil physical and chemical properties, N reduction combined with bio-organic manure rather than with biochar could promote soil quality through increasing soil physical and chemical properties, soil microbial diversity, and wheat production. It is recommended that scientific application of N fertilizer combined with organic matter could improve the sustainable utilization of soil.
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