文章摘要
邢书昆, 张光辉, 王滋贯, 王丽丽.黄土丘陵沟壑区浅层滑坡和崩塌形态特征与发育临界地形[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):106~113
黄土丘陵沟壑区浅层滑坡和崩塌形态特征与发育临界地形
Morphological Characteristics and Critical Topography of Shallow Landslide and Collapse in Hilly and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau
投稿时间:2021-09-17  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.014
中文关键词: 黄土高原  重力侵蚀  地形因子  临界条件  植被类型
英文关键词: the Loess Plateau  gravity erosion  topographic factor  critical condition  vegetation type
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目“黄土高原植被恢复影响切沟侵蚀的动力机制与模拟”(42130701)
作者单位E-mail
邢书昆1, 张光辉1,2, 王滋贯1, 王丽丽1 1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部, 北京 100875

2. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室
, 北京 100875 
ghzhang@bnu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      退耕还林(草)工程的深入实施有效遏制了黄土高原水土流失,但以浅层滑坡和崩塌为主的重力侵蚀在黄土高原广泛分布,且已成为小流域侵蚀泥沙主要来源之一。为探究黄土丘陵沟壑区浅层滑坡和崩塌的形态特征和发育临界地形,在陕西省安塞区纸坊沟小流域调查了53处浅层滑坡和40处崩塌,记录其植被特征,同时进行无人机摄影测量。结果表明:浅层滑坡的规模通常大于崩塌,且形态变化范围更大;浅层滑坡长度、宽度、周长和面积与沟壑密度呈显著负相关(P<0.01),与距离沟道远近呈显著正相关(P<0.01),崩塌的形态特征与沟壑密度和距离沟道远近的相关性较弱;浅层滑坡和崩塌均较为集中地分布在坡度和地形湿度指数适中(30°~55°和0.50~2.00)、径流流路比降和径流流路长度较小(60.0%~120.0%和0~15.00 m)的区域,而在坡度和径流流路比降较大(>55°和>120.0%)、地形湿度指数和径流流路长度较小(<0.50和<15.00 m)的区域,崩塌较为发育;反之,在坡度和径流流路比降较小(<30°和<120.0%)、地 形湿度指数和径流流路长度较大(>2.00和>15.00 m)的区域,浅层滑坡较为发育;灌木坡面浅层滑坡和崩塌主要发生的坡向范围是0~180°,草本坡面浅层滑坡主要发生的坡向范围是0~90°和270°~360°。研究结果对于理解浅层滑坡和崩塌的发生过程和临界地形条件、估算小流域产沙量和控制侵蚀具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      The implementation of the "grain-for-green" project has effectively mitigated soil erosion of hill slope on the Loess Plateau. However, gravity erosion, including both shallow landslide and collapse, is widely distributed on the Loess Plateau and has become one of the dominant source of erosion sediment in small watershed. To explore the morphological characteristics and critical topography of shallow landslide and collapse in hilly and gully region of the Loess Plateau, 53 shallow landslides and 40 collapses were investigated in Zhifanggou small watershed in Ansai District, Shaanxi Province, and their vegetation characteristics were also recorded. Photogrammetry was performed by unmanaged aircraft vehicle. The results showed that the sizes of shallow landslide were usually larger than those of collapse. The variations in morphological characteristics of shallow landslide were greater than those of collapse. The length, width, perimeter and area of shallow landslide were negatively correlated with gully density (P<0.01), and were positively correlated with the distance to gully system (P<0.01). Nevertheless, the correlations between the morphological characteristics of collapse, and gully density and distance were loose. Shallow landslide and collapse were concentrated on where the slope and topographic wetness index (30°~55° and 0.50~2.00) were moderate, flow path gradient and flow path length were small (60.0%~120.0% and 0~15.00 m). Nevertheless, in areas where the slope and flow path gradient were large (>55° and >120.0%), and the topographic wetness index and flow path length were small (<0.50 and <15.00 m), gravity erosion was dominated by collapse. On the contrary, in areas where the slope and flow path gradient were small (<30° and <120.0%), and the topographic wetness index and flow path length were large (>2.00 and >15.00 m), gravity erosion was dominated by shallow landslide. Shallow landslide and collapse widely occurred on slopes covered by shrub communities with the aspect of 0~180°. Shallow landslide was also distributed on slopes covered by herbs with the aspects of 0~90° and 270°~360°. The research results are helpful for understanding the occurrence process and critical topographic conditions of shallow landslide and collapse estimating sediment yield and controlling erosion in small watershed.
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