文章摘要
蒋娟, 曾昊, 刘冬冬, 车陆禄, 张广映.苔藓覆盖对喀斯特林地碳酸盐岩红土剥蚀过程的影响[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):92~98,105
苔藓覆盖对喀斯特林地碳酸盐岩红土剥蚀过程的影响
Effects of Moss Cover on Detachment Process of Carbonate Derived Laterite from Karst Forest Land
投稿时间:2021-09-11  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.012
中文关键词: 苔藓覆盖  喀斯特林地  碳酸盐岩红土  剥蚀过程
英文关键词: moss cover  karst forest land  carbonate derived laterite  detachment process
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41807016);黔科合支撑项目([2020]4Y010);贵州省水利科技经费项目(KT201803);贵州省研究生基金立项课题项目(黔教合YJSCXJH[2020]094)
作者单位E-mail
蒋娟1,2, 曾昊3, 刘冬冬1,2, 车陆禄1,2, 张广映1,2 1. 贵州大学资源与环境工程学院, 贵阳 550025

2. 喀斯特地质资源与环境教育部重点实验室
, 贵阳 550025

3. 湖州南太湖水利水电勘测设计院有限公司宁波分公司
, 浙江 宁波 315300 
liudongdongcn@foxmail.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探究苔藓覆盖对喀斯特山地土壤剥蚀过程影响的机理,通过野外采集原状土样,结合上方来水冲刷剥蚀试验,分析了不同坡度(5°,20°)与不同土壤含水率(饱和含水率、田间含水率)条件下苔藓盖度与土壤分离能力间的定量关系,解析了坡面流水力特征参数对苔藓覆盖的响应规律。结果表明:在5°和20°坡度下,苔藓覆盖下饱和土壤的土壤剥蚀率分别比田间含水率土壤高33.9%和10.8%。与裸土层相比,苔藓覆盖能够在高土壤含水率条件下有效抑制土壤剥蚀率,且在低坡度下效果更显著。田间含水率土壤的剥蚀率随着苔藓盖度的增加呈线性减小趋势(R2>0.995)。此外,苔藓覆盖对5°坡度的坡面流水力特征参数有显著影响,饱和土壤条件下的苔藓覆盖显著改变坡面流流态(P<0.05)。与裸土层相比,苔藓覆盖显著降低坡面流速(20.6%)、雷诺数(0.6%)、弗劳德数(28.6%)和径流功率(0.8%),显著增加径流深(27.8%)、水流切应力(26.9%)和阻力系数(117.0%)。然而20°坡度下苔藓覆盖对坡面流水力特征参数并没有显著影响。总体而言,苔藓覆盖下碳酸盐岩红土的土壤剥蚀率与坡面流水力特性没有显著相关性。研究结果可为探明苔藓覆盖在喀斯特山地的水土保持效应提供试验依据。
英文摘要:
      The influences of moss cover on detachment process of carbonate derived laterite in karst mountainous lands were explored and analysed. Undisturbed soil samples were collected and subjected to flow scouring in a 3.5 m long hydraulic flume. Two degrees of slope (5°, 20°) and two soil water contents (saturated soil water content, field capacity) were selected to quantify the relationship between moss coverage and soil detachment rate. The responses of hydraulic characteristics of slope runoff to moss cover were also analyzed. Compared to the field capacity, the results indicated that the detachment rate of saturated soil under moss cover increased by 33.9% and 10.8% at slopes of 5 and 20 degrees, respectively. The effects of moss cover on reducing soil detachment rate were more effective than that of bare soil without moss cover, and its effects were more obvious at lower slopes. The detachment rate under field capacity soil condition decreased in a linear trend with increasing moss coverage (R2>0.995). The moss cover had significant effects on the hydraulic characteristics of runoff flow at the slope of 5 degrees. The moss cover under saturated soil condition significantly changed the flow regime of surface runoff (P<0.05). Compared to bare soil without moss cover, the moss cover significantly reduced the runoff velocity (-20.6%), Reynolds number (-0.6%), Froude number (-28.6%) and runoff power (-0.8%), increased the runoff depth (+27.8%), flow shear stress (+26.9%) and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient (+117.0%). Besides, the moss cover had no significant effects on the hydraulic characteristics of slope runoff at the slope of 20 degrees. Overall, no significant correlation exhibited between the hydraulic characteristics of runoff flow and the soil detachment rate of carbonate derived laterite covered with moss. These results can provide the experimental data for the study of applying moss cover to soil and water conservation in karst mountainous lands.
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