文章摘要
牟廷森, 沈海鸥, 王东丽, 张月, 武佳龙, 黄子炎.玉米秸秆粉碎还田对黑土坡面土壤侵蚀特征的影响[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):78~83,91
玉米秸秆粉碎还田对黑土坡面土壤侵蚀特征的影响
Effects of Crushed Corn Straw Returning on Soil Erosion Characteristics at the Black Soil Hillslopes
投稿时间:2021-08-10  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.010
中文关键词: 秸秆粉碎还田  坡度  径流  土壤侵蚀  黑土
英文关键词: crushed straw returning  slope gradient  runoff  soil erosion  black soil
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFE0202900);国家自然科学基金项目(41701325,41601281)
作者单位E-mail
牟廷森1,3, 沈海鸥1,3, 王东丽2, 张月1,3, 武佳龙1,3, 黄子炎1 1. 吉林农业大学资源与环境学院, 长春 130118

2. 辽宁工程技术大学环境科学与工程学院
, 辽宁 阜新 123000

3. 秸秆生物学与利用教育部重点实验室
, 长春 130118 
shensusan@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探究玉米秸秆粉碎还田对黑土坡面土壤侵蚀特征的影响,对不同坡度(3°,5°和7°)下不同玉米秸秆粉碎还田量(0,25%,50%,75%和100%)坡面进行人工模拟降雨试验。结果表明:玉米秸秆粉碎还田措施具有调控径流作用,坡面产流时间延缓,产流率和径流量降低;秸秆还田量越大,产流时间延后越明显,平均径流流速越低;在3°坡面,秸秆粉碎还田25%和100%处理的调控径流效果较好,在5°和7°坡面,秸秆粉碎还田50%和75%处理的调控径流效果较好。同时,玉米秸秆粉碎还田措施能够在一定程度上降低坡面产沙率和土壤侵蚀量,当秸秆粉碎还田量较低(<50%)时,相对平缓坡度(3°和5°)下的产沙率和土壤侵蚀量较低,调控侵蚀效果较好,在3°坡面,秸秆粉碎还田25%处理的调控侵蚀效果可达74.1%;当秸秆粉碎还田量较高(>50%)时,随着坡度的增大,其调控侵蚀效果呈增加趋势,在7°坡面,秸秆粉碎还田100%处理的调控侵蚀效果可达72.1%。因此,在农业生产实践中应结合当地地形坡度,筛选适宜的秸秆还田方式和还田量。
英文摘要:
      To reveal the effects of crushed corn straw returning on soil erosion characteristics at the black soil hillslopes, the simulated rainfall experiments were carried out based on different amounts of crushed corn straw returning (0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) under different slope gradients (3°, 5° and 7°). The results showed that the crushed corn straw returning could regulate runoff, and delay the runoff-yield time; and thus, the runoff rates and runoff values decreased. Moreover, with the increasing amounts of the crushed corn straw returning, the runoff-yield time delayed more and the mean runoff velocity obviously decreased. For the 3° hillslope, the 25% and 100% of crushed corn straw returning treatments showed better runoff regulation effects; while for the 5° and 7° hillslopes, the 50% and 75% treatments showed the better. Furthermore, the crushed corn straw returning could decrease the sediment rates and soil erosion to a certain extent. When the amount of the crushed corn straw returning was lower (<50%), the sediment rates and soil erosion were also lower under gentle slope gradients (3° and 5°), which illustrated that the treatments showed relatively better soil erosion regulation effects. Among them, the soil erosion regulation effect for the 25% of crushed corn straw returning treatment could reach 74.1% under the 3° slope gradient. When the amount of the crushed corn straw returning was greater (>50%), the soil erosion regulation effects increased with the increases in the slope gradients. Among them, the soil erosion regulation effect for the 100% of crushed corn straw returning treatment could reach 72.1% under the 7° slope gradient. Therefore, it is necessary to select appropriate corn straw returning patterns and amounts based on concrete slope gradients and other topographic characteristics in the practice of agricultural production.
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