文章摘要
孙美荣, 孙鹏森, 张明芳, 刘世荣.气候变化和人类活动对流域水文恢复力影响的研究进展[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):13~24
气候变化和人类活动对流域水文恢复力影响的研究进展
Progress in the Effects of Climate Change and Human Activities on Watershed Hydrological Resilience
投稿时间:2021-08-29  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.002
中文关键词: 水文恢复力  Budyko曲线  气候变化  植被结构  水分利用效率
英文关键词: hydrological resilience  Budyko curve  climate change  vegetation composition  water use efficiency
基金项目:中国林业科学研究院基本科研业务费专项(CAFYBB2021QA001);国家“十三五”重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0505006)
作者单位E-mail
孙美荣1, 孙鹏森1, 张明芳2, 刘世荣1 1. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与自然保护研究所, 国家林业和草原局森林生态环境重点实验室, 北京 100091

2. 电子科技大学资源与环境学院
, 成都 611731 
sunpsen@caf.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      水文恢复力是流域或生态系统维持水文稳定性的重要参考指标,深入研究植被结构和水文恢复力之间的关系是未来在全球变化背景下生态水文学的重要方向。但目前水文恢复力对气候变化与人类活动等不同干扰方式的响应机制还缺乏系统的研究,水文恢复力的形成机制及其与植被结构的关系也尚无全面的认识。系统总结了当前水文恢复力的主要概念,从水分利用效率、Budyko框架的水平衡、植被景观结构变化与受到干旱干扰的恢复时间等不同角度总结了5种主要的算法,分析了气候变化、人类活动和植被结构对水文恢复力的响应特点并分析了水文恢复力发挥作用的内在机制。结果表明:(1)Budyko模式和生态系统水分利用效率在水文恢复力的计算中具有重要价值;(2)在能量限制的流域,水文恢复力随着暖干化程度增大而减小;在水分限制的流域,水文恢复力随着暖干化程度增大而增大;(3)森林主导的流域比其他生物群落主导的流域具有更高的水文恢复力;(4)大面积森林采伐或者造林通常会降低流域的水文恢复力;(5)天然林、多样性较高的植被结构有利于维持较高的水文恢复力;(6)干扰条件下植被水分利用效率较高的流域有利于维持较高的水文恢复力;(7)流域植被类型的多样性水平高、景观破碎化程度低、植被结构稳定、土壤储水量大或者有积雪补给的流域其水文恢复力较高。未来需要探索和发展支持流域多种稳定状态下的水文恢复力计算方法。
英文摘要:
      Hydrological resilience is an important reference index for maintaining hydrologic stability of watershed or ecosystem. An in-depth study of the relationship between vegetation structure and hydrological resilience will be an important direction of ecological hydrology under the background of global change in the future. However, there is still a lack of systematic research on the response mechanism of hydrological resilience to different intervention modes such as climate change and human activities, then the formation mechanism of hydrological resilience and its relationship with vegetation structure have not been fully understood. This paper systematically summarized the main concepts of hydrological resilience, and five main algorithms from different perspectives such as water use efficiency, water balance of Budyko framework, vegetation landscape structure change and recovery time disturbed by drought. The responses of climate change, human activities and vegetation structure to hydrological resilience were analyzed, and the internal mechanism of hydrological resilience was analyzed. (1) Budyko model and water use efficiency of ecosystem have significant value in the calculation of hydrological resilience. (2) In the energy-limited watershed, the hydrological resilience decreases with the increases of the degrees of warming and drying. In the water-limited watersheds, the hydrological resilience increases with the increases of the degrees of warming and drying. (3) Forest-dominated watersheds have higher hydrological resilience than other bioceno-dominated catchments. (4) Large-scale deforestation or afforestation usually reduces the hydrological resilience of watersheds. (5) Natural forest and vegetation structure with high diversity are conducive to maintaining high hydrological resilience. (6) The watersheds with higher water use efficiency of vegetation under disturbance are conducive to maintaining high hydrological resilience. (7)The hydrological resilience of the watershed with high diversity of vegetation, low degree of landscape fragmentation, stable vegetation structure, large soil water storage or snow replenishment was higher. It is necessary to explore and develop hydrological resilience calculation methods under various stable states in the future.
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