文章摘要
张光辉, 杨扬, 刘瑛娜, 王志强.东北黑土区土壤侵蚀研究进展与展望[J].水土保持学报,2022,36(2):1~12
东北黑土区土壤侵蚀研究进展与展望
Advances and Prospects of Soil Erosion Research in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China
投稿时间:2022-01-25  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2022.02.001
中文关键词: 黑土  侵蚀环境  侵蚀过程  时空变化  水土保持
英文关键词: black soil  erosion environment  erosion process  spatio-temporal variability  soil and water conservation
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFD1500803)
作者单位
张光辉1,2, 杨扬1,2, 刘瑛娜1,2, 王志强1,2 1. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100875

2. 北京师范大学地理科学学部
, 北京 100875 
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中文摘要:
      东北黑土区是我国重要的商品粮生产基地,强烈水土流失导致的黑土厚度下降及土壤质量退化,直接威胁国家粮食安全。系统分析黑土区土壤侵蚀研究成果,对阻控黑土退化、维持土地生产力、保障国家粮食安全具有重要意义,论述了黑土区土壤侵蚀环境与侵蚀环境效应、土壤侵蚀过程与机理、土壤侵蚀时空变化和未来研究展望。多营力复合、缓坡长坡是黑土区独特的侵蚀环境,黑土厚度下降与坡耕地土壤质量退化是该区最典型的侵蚀环境效应。细沟间、细沟、浅沟、切沟及冻融侵蚀发育的动力机制与主控因素差异明显,输沙耗能驱动的泥沙输移对土壤分离的反馈效应是侵蚀强度沿坡长呈强弱交替的根本原因,浅沟和切沟主要发育在坡耕地,侵蚀强度受耕作方式等人类活动的显著影响。冻融侵蚀强度显著小于水力侵蚀,但可通过降低土壤抗蚀性能和促进坡面径流及壤中流发育影响水力侵蚀。土壤侵蚀类型与强度在小流域尺度上沿坡面呈明显的垂直分带特征,在区域尺度上呈南北与东西递变的纬度和经度地带性。全球气候变化可能导致黑土区水力侵蚀加强、冻融侵蚀减弱。未来亟需加强黑土厚度及土地生产力对侵蚀响应机理、复合侵蚀动力过程与耦合机制、典型侵蚀类型时空变化与主控因素等方面的研究。
英文摘要:
      The black soil region of Northeast China is an important commodity grain production base of our country. Intensive soil and water loss declines both the thickness and quality of the black soil, thereby threatening the national food security directly. It is therefore of great importance to systematically examine soil erosion research outcomes in the black soil region, which hold essential implications for the prevention and alleviation of black soil degradation, the maintenance of land productivity, and the assurance of national food security. In the current study, the researches on soil erosion environment and its effects, soil erosion processes and mechanisms, spatio-temporal variability of soil erosion in the black soil region were analyzed and concluded, and future research perspectives on soil erosion were proposed. The erosion environment of the black soil region is characterized by various erosive agents and their different combinations, as well as long gentle slopes. The direct impacts of such erosion environment are declining black soil thickness and soil quality degradation of slope farmlands. The erosion mechanisms and dominant influencing factors vary with erosion type, which include interrill, rill, ephemeral gully, gully and freeze-thaw erosion. The feedback of sediment transport induced by energy consumption to soil detachment is the dominant reason for the alternative pattern of strong and weak soil erosion intensity with slope length. Ephemeral gully and gully mainly emerge on slope farmlands, and soil erosion intensity is significantly affected by anthropogenic activities. Although notably weaker than water erosion, the freeze-thaw erosion in this region can influence water erosion via reducing soil erosion resistance and enhancing both surface and subsurface runoff. At the catchment scale, the type and intensity of soil erosion apparently change vertically along the slope, i.e., from slope summit towards toe, whereas at the regional scale, they exhibit clear latitudinal and longitudinal zonality along the north-east and west-east directions, respectively. Global climate change may enhance water erosion but reduce freeze-thaw erosion in the black soil region. Future research should focus on the response mechanisms of black soil thickness and land productivity to soil erosion, the dynamic processes and coupling mechanisms of complex soil erosion, as well as the spatio-temporal variability and controlling factors of typical soil erosion types.
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