文章摘要
李其胜, 杨凯, 汪志鹏, 赵贺, 焦加国, 李辉信.稻—油轮作下有机替代对土壤胞外酶活性及多功能性的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(2):345~352,360
稻—油轮作下有机替代对土壤胞外酶活性及多功能性的影响
Effects of Organic Substitution on Soil Extracellular Enzyme Activity and Multi-functionality in Rice-Rapeseed Rotation System
投稿时间:2020-10-15  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.02.046
中文关键词: 有机肥替代  土壤胞外酶活性  土壤多功能性  水稻-油菜轮作
英文关键词: organic fertilizer substitution  soil extracellular enzyme activity  soil multi-function  rice-rapeseed rotation
基金项目:江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目(CX (19)2012);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300908);山东省重点研发计划项目(2019JZZY020614)
作者单位E-mail
李其胜, 杨凯, 汪志鹏, 赵贺, 焦加国, 李辉信 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心, 南京 210095 jiaguojiao@njau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      通过田间定位试验,研究有机肥替代部分化肥对稻—油轮作体系下土壤胞外酶活性及多功能性的影响,为稻—油轮作体系土壤培肥和合理施肥提供理论依据。试验基于总养分替代原则,以不施肥为对照(CK),设置全量化肥(CF)、有机肥替代20%化肥(CFM1)及有机肥替代40%化肥(CFM2)处理,测定土壤化学性质、微生物学性质和土壤胞外酶活性,应用多元回归分析探讨土壤性质对土壤胞外酶活性及多功能性的影响。结果表明:与CF处理相比,CFM1、CFM2处理的微生物量碳、氮和土壤呼吸在油菜季平均增加275.27%,41.90%和64.29%;而在水稻季平均增加115.06%,338.32%,60.87%。有机肥替代部分化肥也显著提高土壤有机质、全氮、全磷和速效养分含量,增幅为13.25%~95.48%。相比单施化肥,有机肥替代部分化肥显著增加油菜季土壤β—葡糖苷酶、纤维素酶、木聚糖酶、亮氨酸氨基肽酶、N—乙酰—β—D—氨基葡糖苷酶和酸性磷酸酶等碳氮磷循环相关胞外酶活性,增幅为20.33%~140.31%;而在水稻季,只有木聚糖酶活性显著增加,增幅为133.63%~159.86%。油菜季土壤胞外酶活性变化的关键因子为土壤微生物量碳,而水稻季的则为土壤速效磷。相比不施肥和单施化肥,有机肥替代处理显著增加土壤多功能性,油菜季土壤多功能性的主要预测因子和调控因子主要是速效钾和速效氮含量,而水稻季的则为速效磷和微生物量氮。总之,有机肥替代部分化肥有利于土壤养分、土壤胞外酶活性和多功能性提高,是维持作物稳产和保持土壤生物健康的重要措施。
英文摘要:
      Through fixed field experiment, the effects of organic fertilizer substitute part of chemical fertilizer on soil extracellular enzyme activity and multi-functionality was analyzed, and this study could provide theoretical basis for soil fertility improvement and rational fertilization in rice-rapeseed rotation. Based on the principle of total nutrient substitution amount of nutrients, 4 treatments, which including no fertilizer (CK), full amount of chemical fertilizer (CF), organic fertilizer substitute 20% chemical fertilizer (CFM1), and organic fertilizer substitute 40% chemical fertilizer (CFM2) were set up. Soil chemical properties, microbial properties, and extracellular enzyme activity were assessed, and the Multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effects of soil properties on soil extracellular enzyme activity and multi-functionality. The results showed that compared with CF, soil microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, and soil respiration of CFM1 and CFM2 increased 275.27%, 41.90%, and 64.29% in rapeseed season, and increased 115.06%, 338.32%, and 60.87% in rice season. Organic fertilizer application increased the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and available nutrients by 13.25%~95.48%. Compared with the single application of chemical fertilizer, the replacement of part of chemical fertilizer by organic fertilizer significantly increased the activity of β-glucosidase, cellulase, xylanase, leucine aminopeptidase, N-acetyl-aminoglucosidase, and acid phosphatase in the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycle, with an increase of 20.33%~140.31% in rapeseed season, while in rice season, only xylanase activity was significantly increased, with an increase of 133.63%~159.86%. The key factors for the changes of soil extracellular enzyme activities was soil microbial biomass carbon in rapeseed season, and was soil available phosphorus in rice season. Compared with no fertilizer treatment and full amount of chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer replacement treatment significantly increased soil multi-functionality, the main predictive factors of soil multi-functionality were available potassium and available nitrogen in rapeseed season, and were available phosphorus and microbial biomass nitrogen content in rice season. In a word, the substitution of organic fertilizer for part of chemical fertilizer is beneficial to the improvement of soil nutrients, microbial biomass, and soil extracellular enzyme activity, which is an important measure to maintain stable crop yield and soil biological health.
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