文章摘要
殷全玉, 孟祥瑞, 赵世民, 王玉洁, 王宏, 申洪涛, 刘国顺.有机无机氮肥配施下洛阳烟田土壤N2O排放特点及其控制因素[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(2):330~337
有机无机氮肥配施下洛阳烟田土壤N2O排放特点及其控制因素
The N2O Emission Characteristics and Controlling Factors in Luoyang Tobacco Field Under the Combined Application of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilizer
投稿时间:2020-09-18  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.02.044
中文关键词: 烟草  旱地  N2O  有机肥  无机肥  硝态氮  铵态氮
英文关键词: tobacco  dry-land  N2O  organic nitrogen fertilizer  inorganic nitrogen fertilizer  nitrate nitrogen  ammonium nitrogen
基金项目:河南省烟草公司洛阳市公司科技项目(LYKJ201404)
作者单位E-mail
殷全玉1, 孟祥瑞1, 赵世民2, 王玉洁2, 王宏2, 申洪涛3, 刘国顺1 1. 河南农业大学烟草学院, 郑州 450002

2. 河南省烟草公司洛阳市公司
, 河南 洛阳 471000

3. 河南中烟工业有限责任公司
, 郑州 450000 
liugsh1851@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      随着农田化肥使用量的逐年增加和土壤退化问题日趋严重,农田温室气体排放关注度持续提高,为研究旱作植烟土壤N2O排放特征及影响机理,设置6个田间试验处理,分别为CK0(不施肥处理)、CK1(100%无机氮)、T1(50%无机氮+50%饼肥氮)、T2(50%无机氮+50%羊粪肥氮)、T3(25%无机氮+75%饼肥氮)、T4(25%无机氮+75%羊粪肥氮),各处理施氮量均为45 kg/hm2,烟田施用基肥后起142天内测量不同处理土壤N2O排放通量、硝态氮、铵态氮含量、根层温度和含水率。结果表明:(1)基肥施入后的3~7天内,土壤N2O排放通量进入高峰,无机肥处理和有机无机肥配施处理的高峰期分别可维持20,9天,追肥后3天再次出现排放峰并持续9天,随后伴随烟株的生长发育,烟地N2O排放通量逐渐趋向稳定。(2)基肥施用后仅1个月内N2O累积排放量可达到总排放量的27.4%~32.6%;处理间N2O排放量和排放系数均表现为无机>有机+无机(1:1)>有机+无机(3:1),无机肥配施有机肥明显降低了肥料中氮素以N2O形态的损失量;与无机肥相比,T1和T2烟叶产量分别增加9.44%和6.37%,T1、T2、T3和T4处理的N2O排放强度有着不同程度的降低。(3)主成分分析结果显示,在不施肥烟地中0—5 cm土壤温度和含水率是N2O排放通量主导因子,利用相关性分析此环境下温度和水分分别与N2O排放通量间呈现显著和极显著正相关关系;施肥后土壤铵态氮含量和土壤含水率是烟地N2O排放通量的主导因子且相关性分析均呈现极显著正相关关系。综上,旱地植烟土壤N2O排放受氮肥种类影响较大,施肥后N2O排放通量对土壤温度响应减弱,主要受土壤铵态氮含量和含水量的影响;在总氮量相同情况下,有机无机肥配施比例为1:1时明显降低土壤N2O排放并提高了产量,该比例饼肥和羊粪肥处理分别将烟地N2O排放强度降低20.4%和23.7%。
英文摘要:
      With the increasing chemical fertilizers application and serious soil degradation, the greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture field have been also concerned. The experiment combined organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen in order to study N2O emissions in dry tobacco field. There were 6 treatments:CK0 (no fertilizer), CK1 (100% inorganic nitrogen), T1 (50% inorganic nitrogen/50% cake fertilizer nitrogen), T2 (50% inorganic nitrogen/50% sheep manure nitrogen), T3 (25% inorganic nitrogen/75% cake fertilizer nitrogen), T4 (25% inorganic nitrogen/75% sheep manure nitrogen). Totally 45 kg/hm2 nitrogen was applied for each treatment. With in 142 days from applying basic fertilizer, the N2O emission flux, NO3-, NH4+, 0—5 cm soil temperature and moisture content were analyzed. The results showed that:(1) The N2O emission flux of the soil reached a high flux after 3~7 days of basic fertilization. The inorganic fertilizer and the combined fertilizer of inorganic and organic for the first high flux were lasting about 20 days and 9 days respectively. The N2O emission flux of the soil reached a high flux one more time after 3 days of the second fertilization, and lasted 9 days. During the tobacco growing, soil N2O emissions tended to be stable. (2) The cumulative emissions of N2O could reach 27.4%~32.6% of the total emissions after one month of basic fertilization. The relationship of the emissions flux and the N2O emission factors among treatments was inorganic>organic + inorganic (1:1)>Organic + Inorganic (3:1). The organic fertilizer reduced the loss of nitrogen in the fertilizer in the form of N2O. Compared with the inorganic fertilizers, the yield of T1 and T2 increased by 9.44% and 6.37% respectively; and the N2O emission intensity of each treatment were reduced. (3) Principal component analysis results showed that soil temperature and moisture content of 0~5 cm were the dominant factors of N2O flux in non-fertilized tobacco fields. Analyzing correlation, temperature and moisture in this treatment were significantly positively and extremely significantly positively correlated with N2O flux, respectively. After fertilization, soil NH4+and soil moisture content were the dominant factors of N2O flux from, and the correlation showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.01). In summary, the N2O flux of tobacco soil was extremely affected by the type of nitrogen fertilizer. After fertilizing, the responses of tobacco field N2O fluxes to soil temperature declined, and the main influencing factors were NH4+ and soil moisture. Under the same nitrogen content, the combined fertilizer of organic and inorganic rate of 1:1 reduced the N2O cumulative emissions significantly, and enhanced the tobacco yield. The cake fertilizer and sheep manure with this organic and inorganic rate reduced the emission intensity by 20.4% and 23.7%, respectively.
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