文章摘要
张博凯, 郝鲜俊, 高文俊, 秦璐, 孟会生, 张杰, 洪坚平.不同有机肥及用量对矿区复垦土壤有效磷含量及供磷特性的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(2):271~278
不同有机肥及用量对矿区复垦土壤有效磷含量及供磷特性的影响
Effects of Different Organic Fertilizers and Amounts on Available Phosphorus Content and Phosphorus Supply Characteristics in Coal Mining Reclaimed Soil
投稿时间:2020-09-05  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.02.036
中文关键词: 有机肥  矿区复垦土壤  磷水平  速效磷  玉米
英文关键词: organic fertilizer  mine reclamation of soil  phosphorus concentration  available phosphorus  corn
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41601327);山西省留学回国人员科技活动择优资助项目;山西农业大学科技创新基金项目(2016ZZ14)
作者单位E-mail
张博凯1,2, 郝鲜俊1,2, 高文俊3, 秦璐1,2, 孟会生1,2, 张杰1,2, 洪坚平1,2 1. 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 山西 太谷 030801

2. 山西农业大学农业资源与环境国家级实验教学示范中心
, 山西 太谷 030801

3. 山西农业大学草业学院
, 山西 太谷 030801 
haoxianjun660@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      为研究有机肥培肥复垦土壤过程中磷的有效性如何变化、不同有机肥在什么施磷水平下能使作物取得最大生产效率以及合理培肥土壤,依托采煤塌陷定位培肥试验基地(山西省孝义市偏城村),在4个磷水平下(0,25,50,100 kg/hm2)研究不同肥料(鸡粪、猪粪、牛粪和化肥)对玉米产量及土壤速效磷含量的动态变化。经过2年的田间试验,结果表明:(1)施用有机肥和化肥均能显著提高玉米籽粒产量,随着施磷量的增加,玉米籽粒产量呈先增加后基本不变的趋势,通过构建2年磷肥效应方程发现,化肥、鸡粪、猪粪和牛粪处理的最佳施磷量范围分别为67.54~83.02,24.91~38.65,26.10~29.26,50.33~58.38 kg/hm2,可见,3种有机肥推荐施磷量均小于化肥处理;(2)玉米吸磷量和磷肥利用率在各施磷水平下均表现为鸡粪 ≥猪粪>牛粪>化肥。玉米吸磷量随施磷水平的增加呈先增后基本不变的趋势,磷肥当季回收率表现为随施磷水平的增加呈下降趋势;(3)连续施肥2年后,不同施肥处理在采煤塌陷区复垦土壤上影响的土壤有效磷深度不同。其中,化肥处理在50,100 kg/hm2磷水平下显著提高0—60 cm土层Olsen—P含量;鸡粪处理在50 kg/hm2磷水平下显著提高0—40 cm土层Olsen—P含量,而100 kg/hm2磷水平下显著提高Olsen—P含量到60 cm土层;猪粪处理在50,100 kg/hm2磷水平下显著提高0—40 cm土层Olsen—P含量;牛粪处理仅对表层Olsen—P含量有影响。总之,不同有机肥处理之间对作物生长和土壤Olsen—P含量的影响均表现为鸡粪 ≥猪粪>牛粪,且不同有机肥对于新复垦土壤的推荐施肥量不同,鸡粪和猪粪的推荐施磷量最少,其次为牛粪处理。
英文摘要:
      This study aimed to study how phosphorus availability changes during soil reclamation with organic fertilizer and at what level of phosphorus application can different organic fertilizer make crops achieve maximum productivity and enriching the soil resonable. For these reasons, a two-year experiment was conducted at the coal mining collapse test base (Piancheng Village, Xiaoyi city, Shanxi Province), with setting four fertilization types (chicken manure, pig manure, cow manure and fertilizer) and four phosphorus levels of 0, 25, 50 and 100 kg/hm2 (pure phosphorus). The results showed that:(1) Different fertilization treatments could significantly increase the yield of corn grain yield. With the increase of phosphorus application, the corn grain yield increased first and then remained unchanged. Through constructing the two-year phosphorus fertilizer effect equation, it was found that the optimal phosphorus application ranges of chemical fertilizer, chicken manure, pig manure and cow manure treatment were 67.54~83.02, 24.91~38.65, 26.10~29.26 and 50.33~58.38 kg/hm2, it can be seen that the optimal phosphous application of three organic fertilizer is less than chemical fertilizer treatment. (2) The phosphorus uptake and apparent use efficiency of phosphate fertilizer of maize showed that chicken manure ≥ pig manure>cow manure. The phosphorus uptake of maize increased first and then decreased with the increase of the phosphorus application levels, and the recovery rate of phosphate fertilizer decreased. (3) After continuous fertilization for two years, the depth of soil available P influenced by different fertilization treatments on the reclaimed soil was different. The content of Olsen—P in the 0—60 cm soil layer was significantly increased by the chemical treatment at the dosages of 50 and 100 kg/hm2 phosphorus. However, the content of Olsen—P in 0—40 cm soil layer was significantly increased by chicken manure treatment at the dosages of 50 kg/hm2 phosphorus, the content of Olsen—P in 0—60 cm soil layer was significantly increased by chicken manure treatment the dosages of 100 kg/hm2 phosphorus. The pig manure treatment at the dosages of 50 and 100 kg/hm2 phosphorus only significantly increased the content of Olsen—P in the 0—40 cm soil layer, and cow manure treatment only increased the content of Olsen—P in the surface layer. In a word, both the effects of different organic fertilizers on crop growth and soil Olsen—P content showed chicken manure ≥ pig manure>cow manure. In addition, the different amounts of phosphorus was recommended to the newly reclaimed soil for different organic fertilizers, among which chicken manure and pig manure were least, followed by cow manure.
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