文章摘要
王静, 王磊, 刘耀斌, 李娟, 章明清, 张永春.长期施用不同有机肥对甘薯产量和土壤生物性状的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(2):184~192
长期施用不同有机肥对甘薯产量和土壤生物性状的影响
Effects of Long-term Different Types of Organic Fertilizer Application on Sweet Potato Yield and Soil Biological Traits
投稿时间:2020-10-25  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.02.025
中文关键词: 有机肥  产量  微生物丰度  酶活性
英文关键词: organic fertilization  yield  microbial abundance  enzyme activity
基金项目:国家甘薯产业技术体系生态与土壤管理岗位项目(CARS-10-B9);江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK20190259);江苏省重点研发项目(BE2019378)
作者单位E-mail
王静1,2, 王磊2, 刘耀斌1,2, 李娟3, 章明清3, 张永春1,2 1. 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 南京 210095

2. 江苏省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所
, 农业农村部江苏耕地保育科学观测站, 南京 210014

3. 福建省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所
, 福州 350013 
yczhang66@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      以花生—甘薯轮作的长期定位试验为研究对象,研究不同(类)有机肥对甘薯产量、土壤微生物丰度和酶活性的影响,为选取合适的有机肥在提高作物产量和改善土壤生物性状方面提供依据。共选取5个施肥处理:(1)CK,空白对照;(2)NPK,单施化肥;(3)NPK+SR,化肥+稻草;(4)NPK+M,化肥+商品有机肥;(5)NPK+P,化肥+猪粪。结果表明:与CK相比,NPK、NPK+SR、NPK+M和NPK+P处理均显著增加鲜薯产量和地上部生物量(P<0.05),其中NPK+P处理效果最好。与CK比较,NPK处理显著降低土壤细菌、真菌、固氮菌和活化有机磷微生物的丰度(P<0.05),而NPK+SR、NPK+M和NPK+P处理在不同程度上缓解了NPK处理对土壤微生物丰度的抑制作用。土壤酶的加权平均值(GMea)在一定程度上可用来评价土壤酶的总体活性。与CK相比,NPK、NPK+SR和NPK+M处理的土壤酶活性显著降低(P<0.05),而NPK+P处理的土壤酶活性有所提高;对于土壤单一酶活性,NPK+P处理与CK比较显著降低土壤脲酶活性(P<0.05),但显著提高酸性磷酸酶、碱性磷酸酶和过氧化氢酶活性。此外,主成分和相关性分析表明,土壤养分和土壤有机碳与鲜薯产量和地上部生物量显著正相关,土壤pH是驱动土壤微生物丰度和土壤酶活性变化的主要因素。因此,长期有机无机肥配施通过提高土壤养分、有机碳含量以及调节土壤pH变化在提高甘薯产量和改善土壤生物性状方面取得良好效果。总体来说,化肥配施猪粪在培肥地力和增产增收方面效果最佳。
英文摘要:
      A long-term localization experiment of peanut-sweet potato rotation system was studied to investigate the effect of different types of organic fertilizer on sweet potato yield, soil microbial abundance, and enzyme activities. This study aimed to provide the basis for selecting appropriate organic fertilizers to increase crop yield and improve soil biological characteristics. Five fertilization treatments were selected:(1) CK, no fertilization control; (2) NPK, chemical fertilizers treatment; (3) NPK + SR, chemical fertilizers + straw return treatment; (4) NPK + M, chemical fertilizers + manure treatment; (5) NPK + P, chemical fertilizers + pig manure treatment. The results showed that the yield and aboveground biomass of sweet potato increased significantly under NPK, NPK+SR, NPK+M, and NPK+P treatments compared with CK treatment, while NPK+P treatment had an optimal effect among NPK, NPK+SR, NPK+M, and NPK+P treatments. In comparison with CK treatment, the abundances of bacteria, fungi, diazotrophic, and microorganism associated with soil organic phosphorus transformation decreased significantly under NPK treatment, while NPK+SR, NPK+M, and NPK+P treatment had mitigatory suppression effect on abundance of these microorganisms mentioned above in different degree. The geometric mean of the assayed enzyme activities (GMea) could be used to evaluate the overall activity of soil enzymes to some extent. The GMea decreased significantly under NPK, NPK+SR, and NPK+M treatments compared with CK treatment, whereas NPK+P treatment improved the geometric mean of the assayed enzyme activities. For single enzyme activity, NPK+P treatment significantly reduced soil urease activity compared with CK treatment (P<0.05), however, NPK+P treatment significantly increased acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase activities, respectively. In addition, the results of principal component and pearson correlation analysis suggested that soil nutrients and soil organic carbon content were significantly positively correlated with yield and aboveground biomass of sweet potato. Soil pH was the main factor that drives the change of soil microbial abundance and soil enzyme activities. Therefore, long-term combined with organic and inorganic fertilization has achieved a good efficiency on increasing sweet potato yield and improving soil biological properties through increasing soil nutrients, organic carbon content as well as influencing soil pH. Among all the fertilization treatments as we selected, chemical fertilizers plus pig manure had the best effect on enriching the soil fertility and improving crop production.
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