文章摘要
张建军, 党翼, 赵刚, 樊廷录, 王磊, 李尚中.控释氮肥全量基施对旱地玉米产量形成和水肥利用效率的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(2):170~177
控释氮肥全量基施对旱地玉米产量形成和水肥利用效率的影响
Effects of Application of Controlled-Release Nitrogen on Yield and Water and Fertilizer Use Efficiency of Maize
投稿时间:2020-08-26  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.02.023
中文关键词: 控释氮肥  全量基施  产量  水肥利用效率  干物质积累与转运
英文关键词: controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer  single basal fertilization  yield  water and fertilizer use efficiency  dry matter accumulation and transfer
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0100206);甘肃农业科学院院列重点研发计划项目(2019GAAS28);现代农业产业技术体系项目(CARS02-55)
作者单位
张建军1, 党翼1, 赵刚1, 樊廷录1, 王磊1, 李尚中1 1. 甘肃省农业科学院旱地农业研究所, 兰州 730070

2. 甘肃省旱作区水资源高效利用重点实验室
, 兰州 730070 
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中文摘要:
      探讨控释氮肥全量基施对旱地玉米干物质积累与转运、产量和水肥利用效率的影响,为建立高效旱地玉米一次性氮肥全量施用和轻简化栽培技术提供支撑。2016—2019年在甘肃省东部黄土旱塬区连续4年设置大田定位试验,研究不同用量控释氮肥全量基施对旱地玉米产量、水肥利用效率及干物质积累与转运规律的影响。结果表明:与普通氮肥相比,相同用量的控释氮肥全量基施有利于提高玉米叶片叶绿素相对含量(SPAD值),增加干物质积累量,提高灌浆期茎鞘和叶片干物质输出率和贡献率。无论何种降雨年型,施用控释氮肥均能优化玉米产量构成,平均穗粒数和百粒重分别增加4.0%和4.9%,进而显著提高玉米产量,4年平均增加9.7%。在产量显著增加而耗水量未明显增加的条件下,控释氮肥明显提高了旱地玉米水分利用效率,4年平均增加4.0%;同时显著提高了氮肥偏生产力和农学利用率,4年平均分别增加9.5%和24.7%。因此,与普通氮肥相比,控释氮肥能更好地改善玉米地上部生长发育,增加灌浆期干物质向穗部转移,有利于旱地玉米高产和水肥高效利用。
英文摘要:
      In order to establish an efficient total nitrogen fertilizer application technology, and provide technical basis for simplified cultivation maize in arid area, a four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer (CRNF) application on yield, water and fertilizer use efficiency, dry matter accumulation and transfer of maize in Rain fed highland of China Loess Plateau from 2016—2019. Results showed that the CRNF could increase SPAD value of leaves and dry matter accumulation, as well the output and contribution rates of stem sheath and leaf dry matter at the grain filling stage. Regardless of what kind of rainfall years, the application of CRNF could optimize the maize yield composition. The grain number and grain weight increased by 4.0% and 4.9%, respectively, and maize yield significantly increased by 9.7% on average in four years. Under the significant increase in yield and no significant increase in water consumption, CRNF improved the water use efficiency of maize in arid area, with an increase of 4.0% on average in four years. Besides, CRNF significantly increased the partial factor productivity of nitrogen fertilizer and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency, with the increases of 9.5% and 24.7% on average in four years respectively, both decreased significantly with the increases of nitrogen application. Compared to the conventional nitrogen fertilization, the application of release-controlled urea (CU) could have a positive effect on maize aboveground growth, and increase yield, water and fertilizer use efficiencies of maize.
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