文章摘要
李源, 宋维峰, 马建刚.中国西南水梯田土壤水分特性研究——以哈尼梯田为例[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(2):160~169
中国西南水梯田土壤水分特性研究——以哈尼梯田为例
Soil Moisture Characteristics of Water Terrace in Southwest China—A Case Study of Hani Terraces
投稿时间:2020-10-09  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.02.022
中文关键词: 哈尼梯田  土壤水分特征曲线  土壤持水性  土壤水分有效性
英文关键词: Hani terraces  soil moisture characteristic curve  soil water retention  soil moisture availability
基金项目:云南省基础研究重点项目“以水为核心的哈尼梯田人工湿地生态功能维持与修复研究”(202001AS070042)
作者单位E-mail
李源, 宋维峰, 马建刚 西南林业大学生态与环境学院, 昆明 650224 songwf85@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了研究中国西南水梯田的土壤水分特性,以云南哈尼梯田为例,选取哈尼梯田核心区全福庄小流域内林地、荒草地、旱地和水田4种土地利用类型,分层取0—10,10—20,20—40,40—60,60—80,80—100 cm深度土样测其主要土壤理化指标和土壤水分特征曲线,分析其土壤的持水性和水分有效性。结果表明:(1)哈尼梯田4种不同土地利用类型土壤容重变化范围为0.61~1.41 g/cm3,且0—40 cm与40—100 cm差异性显著,土壤有机质含量为1.17%~9.65%;土壤总孔隙度和非毛管孔隙度变化与容重一致,土壤毛管孔隙度总体呈现林地>旱地和水田>荒草地;(2)土壤质地以粉砂壤土为主,粉粒含量最高(52.74%~82.55%),砂粒含量次之(14.44%~45.31%),黏粒含量极少(0~3.68%);(3)相同土壤水吸力下,林地各土层土壤水分特征曲线相对较高,土壤持水性最强,旱地和水田次之,荒草地最低;土壤有效水含量则表现为水田>林地>旱地>荒草地;(4)影响哈尼梯田土壤水分特性的关键因素是土壤颗粒组成和毛管孔隙度,其中土壤持水性与颗粒组成呈显著正相关,土壤有效水含量与土壤毛管孔隙度呈显著正相关。总体而言,哈尼梯田生态系统中林地具有良好的蓄排能力,而梯田在保蓄水分的同时进行水分再分配,二者在维持生态系统可持续发展上具有十分显著的作用。研究结果为进一步研究西南水梯田土壤水分和梯田灌溉管理提供了科学依据。
英文摘要:
      In order to research soil water characteristics of water terrace in southwestern China, the Hani terraces were taken for example, 4 kinds of land use types(woodland, grassland, dry land, and paddy field) in the Hani terraced fields core (Quanfuzhuang watershed) were selected, the main soil physical and chemical index, soil water characteristic curve, water holding capacity, and moisture availability were measured in 0—10 cm, 10—20 cm, 20—40 cm, 40—60 cm, 60—80 cm, and 80—100 cm soil layers. The results showed that:(1) The soil bulk density varied from 0.61~1.41 g/cm3, and showed significant difference between 0—40 cm and 40—100 cm, and the content of soil organic matter was 1.17%~9.65%. The changes of soil total porosity and non capillary porosity were consistent with bulk density, and the soil capillary porosity was woodland>dryland and paddy field>grassland. (2) The soil texture was mainly silt loam, with the highest silt content (52.74%~82.55%), followed by sand content (14.44%~45.31%), and clay content (0~3.68%). (3) Under the same soil water suction, the soil water characteristic curve of each soil layer in woodland was relatively higher, and the soil water holding capacity was the strongest, followed by dry land and paddy field, and the lowest in grassland. Soil available water content was paddy field>woodland>dry land>grassland. (4) Soil particle composition and capillary porosity were the key factors affecting soil water characteristics in the Hani terrace. Soil water holding capacity was significantly positively correlated with particle composition, and soil available water content was significantly positively correlated with soil capillary porosity. Generally speaking, woodland in Hani terrace ecosystem has a good capacity of storing and discharging water, while terrace can retain water and redistribute water. Both of them play a very significant role in maintaining the sustainable development of the ecosystem. The results provide a reference for further research on soil moisture and irrigation management of terrace in southwest China.
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