文章摘要
路远, 党廷辉, 成琦.黄土高原沟壑区苹果园土壤剖面水分及矿质氮分布特征[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(2):106~112,121
黄土高原沟壑区苹果园土壤剖面水分及矿质氮分布特征
Distribution Characteristics of Soil Moisture and Mineral Nitrogen in Soil Profile of Apple Orchard in Gully Region of Loess Plateau
投稿时间:2020-11-02  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.02.015
中文关键词: 苹果园  土壤水分  土壤硝态氮  黄土高原沟壑区
英文关键词: apple orchard  soil moisture  soil nitrate nitrogen  Gully region on the Loess Plateau
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0800105)
作者单位E-mail
路远1, 党廷辉1,2, 成琦1 1. 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100

2. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
, 陕西 杨凌 712100 
dangth@ms.iswc.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      面对苹果园大量施肥带来的潜在环境问题,在黄土高原沟壑区典型流域,分别选取不同树龄和地貌类型的苹果园,分析土壤水分含量和土壤矿质氮在土体剖面中的变化,为促进该流域农业发展提供相关数据支持。在陕西长武县王东沟流域,分别选取不同树龄(14,18,23,28,32树龄)和地貌类型(塬、梁、坡地)的果园,用直径为4 cm的土钻,在每株果树周围距离树干1 m处,采集15个不同样地0—400 cm土层样品,12个果园样地0—600 cm土层样品,分别测定土壤水分、硝态氮、铵态氮含量。结果表明:随着树龄的增加,0—600 cm土壤含水量和贮水量出现明显下降,尤其在300—600 cm处,不同树龄果园贮水量差异显著(P<0.05),贮水量大小表现为18树龄>23树龄>32树龄。流域内各树龄果园各土层铵态氮含量均较低,对矿质氮在土体中的分布基本不构成影响;硝态氮含量较高,矿质氮在土壤中的分布主要受其影响。各果园不同树龄600 cm以上土层硝态氮含量变化幅度较大,且硝态氮主要分布在土层深处。坡地果园18,23,32树龄0—200 cm土层硝态氮累积总量分别占0—400 cm土层累积总量的50%,41%和38%,表现出土壤硝态氮随树龄的增长而向深层累积的趋势。3种地貌类型下硝态氮累积量都表现出随果园树龄增长而增加的特点。黄土高原沟壑区果园土壤深层干燥化和硝态氮累积现象明显,而且随着果园树龄的增加趋于严重。
英文摘要:
      In the face of potential environmental problems caused by large-scale fertilization of apple orchards, a typical watershed in the gully region area of the Loess Plateau was used as the research area, apple orchards of different tree ages and geomorphic types were selected, and soil moisture changes and the distribution characteristics of nitrogen in the soil profile of orchards of different tree ages were analyzed, which provide a theoretical basis for scientific fertilization and the promotion of sustainable agricultural development. In the Wangdonggou watershed of Changwu County, Shaanxi, apple orchards with different planting years (14, 18, 23, 28, and 32) and geomorphic types (table, ridge, and slope) were selected, 4 cm diameter sampler were used to collect 0—400 cm soil samples from 15 orchard plots at a distance of 1m from each fruit tree, and 12 orchard plots with typical deep section soil samples of 0—600 cm soil were used determine soil moisture, nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content. The results showed that with the increase of orchard planting years, the soil water content and water storage capacity of 0—600 cm decreased significantly, especially at 300—600 cm.The water storage capacity of 14, 23, and 32-year-old orchards was significantly different (P<0.05), and the water storage performance was 14-year-old orchard>23-year-old orchard>32-year-old orchard. The content of ammonium nitrogen in soil mineral nitrogen was low, and basically had no effect on the distribution characteristics of mineral nitrogen. Nitrate nitrogen accounted for a high proportion of mineral nitrogen, and directly affected the distribution of mineral nitrogen in the soil. The nitrate nitrogen content of 0—600 cm among different ages of orchard varied greatly, and the accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in deep soil was common. The nitrate nitrogen accumulation in 18, 23, and 32-year-old sloping orchards 0—200 cm soil accounted for 50%, 41%, and 38% of the 0—400 cm total accumulation amount, showing that the accumulation of soil nitrate nitrogen gradually deepened with the growth of the orchard tree age. The accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in soil increased with the age of the orchard trees. The accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in soil was 32 years old>23 years old>18 years old in the slope land orchards, 28 years old>23 years old in ridge land orchards, and 23 years old>18 years old>14 years old in table orchards. The deep desiccation of orchard soil and accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in the gully area of the Loess Plateau were obvious, and became more serious with the increase of the orchard age.
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