文章摘要
马耘秀, 夏露, 范毅, 高艳艳.土地利用和气候变化对黄土区典型流域水沙变化的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(2):38~46
土地利用和气候变化对黄土区典型流域水沙变化的影响
Effects of Land-use and Climate Change on Runoff and Sediment Variation in Typical Watershed of the Loess Region
投稿时间:2020-09-15  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.02.006
中文关键词: 土地利用  气候变化  径流  输沙  岚河流域
英文关键词: land use  climate change  runoff  sediment transport  Lanhe River basin
基金项目:山西省水利科学技术研究与推广项目(SZ-2020-24)
作者单位
马耘秀1, 夏露1, 范毅2, 高艳艳2 1. 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 山西农业大学农业资源与环境国家级实验教学示范中心, 山西 太谷 030801

2. 山西省汾河上游水生态环境管理站
, 太原 030012 
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中文摘要:
      为了探究土地利用和气候变化对黄土高原地区水沙情势的影响,选择生态恢复效果非常显著的汾河上游岚河流域为研究区域,采用Mann-Kendall非参数检验法、滑动t检验法和YAMAMOTO指数法对该流域1955—2018年的年降水量、年径流量和年输沙量进行变化趋势分析和突变检验,在此基础上,利用径流/输沙历时曲线分析黄土高原生态恢复背景下流域水沙的演变规律,并根据双累积曲线法定量评价土地利用和气候变化对流域水沙变化的贡献程度。结果表明:岚河流域年降水量在1955—2018年期间呈现不显著的增加趋势,而同时期年径流量、年输沙量均呈现极显著的减少趋势,年均减少率分别为0.65 mm和38.95 t/km2,并均在1983年和1999年附近发生突变,具有较好的水沙变化同步性。与基准期(1955—1982年)相比,水土保持效应期(1983—1998年)的年均径流量减少29.07 mm,年均输沙量减少5 917.88 t/km2,退耕还林效应期(1999—2018年)两者相应减少33.18 mm和6 967.34 t/km2,而分析径流和输沙历时曲线发现流域丰水期、平水期和枯水期径流量和输沙量均呈现减少趋势,且输沙量的减少程度大于径流量的减少程度。流域水土保持效应期土地利用变化对减水减沙的贡献率分别为83.21%和83.52%,退耕还林效应期土地利用变化对减水减沙的贡献率分别为117.88%和103.48%。由此可见,各时期土地利用变化是流域水沙变化的主导因素,而气候变化对流域水沙变化影响较小。在全球气候变化的大背景下,通过调整流域土地利用结构、优化土地利用方式,开展以植被恢复为主的水土保持措施,是实现黄土高原水土流失治理及生态保护的根本途径。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the effects of land-use and climate change on the runoff and sediment of the area in Loess Plateau, the Lanhe River basin in the upper reaches of Fenhe River was selected as the study area, where the ecological restoration effect was very significant. Based on the annual precipitation data, the annual runoff data and the annual sediment data of the Lanhe River from 1955 to 2018, the hydrological trend and the abrupt change were studied by Mann-Kendall test, Sliding t-test, and YAMAMOTO Index method. The law of the runoff and sediment change was analyzed by flow and sediment duration curve method, and the contribution of land-use and climate change to the runoff and sediment variation was quantitatively researched by double accumulation curve method. The results indicated that:From 1955 to 2018, precipitation had insignificant increasing trend, while both runoff and sediment load had significant reduction trends, with average annual change rates of —0.65 mm and —38.95 t/km2, respectively. Both of the runoff and sediment changed abruptly in 1983 and 1999 synchronously. Compared to the period 1 of base (1955-1982), the average annual runoff and sediment load in the period 2 of soil and water conservation (1983-1998) decreased by 29.07 mm and 5 917.88 t/km2 respectively, and in the period 3 of Grain for Green project (1999-2018), the amount of runoff and sediment load decreased by 33.18 mm and 6 967.34 t/km2 respectively. The runoff and sediment load were analyzed by the duration curves, it was found that both of the runoff and sediment load showed a decreasing trend no matter in flood period, mean-flow period or in drought period, and the decreasing degree of sediment load was much greater than the changing degree of runoff. The contribution rates of land-use change to runoff and sediment reduction in the period 2 of soil and water conservation were 83.21% and 83.52% respectively in the basin, and they were 117.88% and 103.48% respectively in the period 3 of Grain for Green project. It can be seen that the change of land-use was the dominant factor of the variation of runoff and sediment in different periods, while climate change had little effect in the basin. Under the background of global climate change, soil and water conservation measures based on vegetation restoration should be carried out by adjusting the land-use structure and optimizing the land use mode in the basin, which is the fundamental approach to soil erosion control and ecological protection on the Loess Plateau.
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