文章摘要
詹舒婷, 宋明丹, 李正鹏, 马海曼.不同秸秆生物炭对土壤水分入渗和蒸发的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(1):294~300
不同秸秆生物炭对土壤水分入渗和蒸发的影响
Effects of Different Straw Biochars on Soil Water Infiltration and Evaporation
投稿时间:2020-07-18  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.01.042
中文关键词: 土柱  湿润锋  稳定入渗速率  入渗模型  蒸发
英文关键词: soil column  wetting front  stable infiltration rate  infiltration model  evaporation
基金项目:青海省科技厅青年基金项目(2018-ZJ-961Q);青海省农林科学院基本科研业务费专项(2017-NKY-05)
作者单位E-mail
詹舒婷1,2, 宋明丹1, 李正鹏1, 马海曼2 1. 青海大学农林科学院, 西宁 810016

2. 青海大学农牧学院
, 西宁 810016 
lipengzheng131@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      探究不同秸秆生物炭对土壤入渗和蒸发的影响,对于秸秆废弃物的资源化利用和水土资源高效利用具有重要意义。选取3种秸秆(油菜、藜麦和马铃薯)为原料制备生物炭,采用室内土柱模拟方法,探究不同材料生物炭对土壤湿润过程、累积入渗量和蒸发过程的影响。结果表明:不同材料生物炭下的土壤入渗和蒸发过程存在显著差异。马铃薯杆炭显著促进了湿润锋的运移,而藜麦杆和油菜杆炭在中后期减缓了湿润锋的运移速度。添加生物炭处理均提高了土壤早期的入渗速率,降低了土壤后期的稳定入渗速率,其中马铃薯杆炭表现最好,促进了早期入渗,而且后期入渗降低少,在入渗55 min时,马铃薯杆炭累积入渗67.8 mm,比对照提高41.8%。在模拟施炭土壤的入渗过程方面,Kostiakov模型表现最优。施炭对于前期土壤蒸发无显著影响,但显著提高了后期的土壤蒸发量。蒸发30天后,马铃薯杆、油菜杆和藜麦杆炭累积蒸发量分别比CK高5.2%,9.2%和10.2%。马铃薯杆生物炭能显著提高土壤的入渗能力。研究结果为青海省东部农区选择合适的生物炭种类提供了科学依据。
英文摘要:
      A better understanding on the effect of biochar derived from different straw types on soil infiltration and evaporation is of great significance for resource utilization of agricultural straw waste and efficient use of soil and water resources. In the present study, by using the soil column simulation investigation, biochars derived from three straw materials (oilseed rape stalk, quinoa stalk, and potato stalk) were used to explore the effect of biochar from different raw materials on soil wetting process, the cumulative infiltration amount and evaporation. The results showed that biochars derived from different feedstocks had significant effect on soil infiltration and evaporation. Biochar derived from potato stalk accelerated significantly the advancement of wetting front, while the ones derived from oilseed rape stalk, quinoa stalk slowed down the mid-late wetting process. Overall, biochar addition improved early soil infiltration rate and decreased stable infiltration rate in late period. Among the three tested biochars, the one derived from potato stalk performed the best in improving soil infiltration, with the cumulative infiltration 67.8 mm after 55 minutes, which was 41.8% higher than control treatment without biochar addition. The Kostiakov model performed best in simulating soil infiltration with biochar addition. Biochar addition had no significant effect on early soil evaporation, but increased significantly the later soil evaporation rate. After the successive evaporation of 30 days, the cumulative evaporation rates with biochar addition derived from potato stalk, oilseed rape stalk, and quinoa stalk were 5.2%, 9.2% and 10.2% respectively higher than CK. Our results suggest that biochar derived from potato stalk could improve soil infiltration ability, which provides scientific basis for choosing reasonable biochar raw materials in the eastern Qinghai Province.
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