文章摘要
刘见, 宁东峰, 秦安振, 张寄阳, 刘战东, 孙彬, 丁鹏飞, 李飞, 沈红丽, 赵东生.黄淮南部平原喷灌冬小麦灌浆特性及水氮优化耦合研究[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(1):244~250
黄淮南部平原喷灌冬小麦灌浆特性及水氮优化耦合研究
Study on the Grain Filling Characteristics and Optimal Water and Nitrogen Coupling of Sprinkler-irrigated Winter Wheat in the Southern Regions of Huang Huai Plain
投稿时间:2020-07-27  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.01.035
中文关键词: 水氮耦合  喷灌  灌浆特性  水氮利用效率  黄淮平原
英文关键词: water and nitrogen coupling  sprinkler  grain filling characteristics  water and nitrogen use efficiency  Huang Huai plain
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0301102);公益性行业科研专项(201503130);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(nycytx-02)
作者单位E-mail
刘见1,2, 宁东峰1, 秦安振1, 张寄阳1, 刘战东1, 孙彬2, 丁鹏飞2, 李飞2, 沈红丽2, 赵东生2 1. 中国农业科学院农田灌溉研究所, 农业农村部作物需水与调控重点实验室, 河南 新乡 453002

2. 许昌市农田水利技术试验推广站
, 河南 许昌 461000 
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中文摘要:
      为了优化冬小麦水氮配置,实现养分水分资源高效利用,试验设计3个灌水水平(低灌水W1:25 mm;中灌水W2:40 mm;高灌水W3:55 mm)和5个氮肥水平(N0:0;N1:80 kg/hm2;N2:180 kg/hm2;N3:240 kg/hm2;N4:300 kg/hm2),共计15个处理,探究了喷灌条件下灌水、施氮及其互作对籽粒灌浆特性及水氮利用效率的影响,并通过建模求解最优水氮配置。结果表明:施氮对te(灌浆持续时间)和tm(最大灌浆速率出现时间)影响显著,两者均随施氮量的增加表现为先增加后降低。N3施氮水平下tetm最大,均值分别为43.9,24.6天,比N0(不施氮)分别增加1.7,3.0天。W2N3处理的tm值最大,比最小处理W1N0延后5.0天。GFmax(最大灌浆速率)与AG(平均灌浆速率)呈极显著相关(r=0.841**),千粒重与产量(r=0.791**)、ter=0.755**)和tmr=0.717**)呈极显著正相关。W2N3组合产量和WUE(水分利用效率)均为最大,分别为8 960 kg/hm2和2.83 kg/m3。水氮耦合通过优化灌浆过程可有效提高冬小麦产量。喷灌灌水定额26~35 mm、施氮量193~204 kg/hm2(基施40%+拔节期追施60%)的水氮资源配置模式可实现节水增产双效目标。
英文摘要:
      This study was aimed to explore the optimal water and nitrogen allocation of winter wheat and achieve the efficient utilization of nutrient and water resources. Three irrigation supply levels (low, 25 mm, W1; moderate, 40 mm, W2; high, 55 mm, W3) and five nitrogen supply levels (N0, 0 kg/hm2; N1, 80 kg/hm2; N2, 180 kg/hm2, N3, 240 kg/hm2, N4, 300 kg/hm2) were designed to optimize the crop irrigation and fertilization. There were 15 treatments in total. The effects of irrigation, nitrogen application and their interaction on the grain filling characteristics and water and nitrogen use efficiency were explored, meanwhile, optimal water and nitrogen supply rates were solved by modeling.The results showed that te (grain-filling lasting time) and tm (the time when maximum filling rate occurred) were affected by fertilization significantly, both of which increased first and then decreased as nitrogen application rates increased. te and tm at N3 level were the largest, with an average of 43.9 and 24.6 days, which were 1.7 and 3.0 days longer than that of N0. The largest tm value was obtained at W2N3 treatment, which happened 5.0 days later than W1N0 did. GFmax (maximum grain filling rate) and AG (average grain filling rate) exerted extremely significant correlation (r=0.841**), 1000-kernel weight was extremely positive correlated with yield (r=0.791**), te (r=0.755**) and tm (r=0.717**). The highest grain yield and water use efficiency were obtained at W2N3 treatment with the maximum of 8 960 kg/hm2 and 2.83 kg/m3. Water and nitrogen coupling efficiently improved yield of winter wheat by optimizing grain filling process. Optimal irrigation quota of sprinkler was 26~35 mm, nitrogen application rate was 193~204 kg/hm2 (basal application 40% and topdressing 60% at jointing stage) achieved the goals of water-saving and yield-increasing.
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