文章摘要
闫秋艳, 董飞, 贾亚琴, 李峰, 杨峰, 鲁晋秀, 高丽娟, 张建诚, 王苗.耕作方式对旱地麦田土壤蓄水变化特征及小麦产量的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(1):222~228
耕作方式对旱地麦田土壤蓄水变化特征及小麦产量的影响
Effects of Tillage Patterns on Soil Water Storage and Wheat Yield in Dryland Wheat Field
投稿时间:2020-06-13  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.01.032
中文关键词: 耕作  旱地小麦  土壤蓄水  产量及构成因素  水分利用效率
英文关键词: tillage  dryland wheat  soil water storage  yield and components  water use efficiency
基金项目:山西省重点研发计划重点项目(201703D211002-5)
作者单位E-mail
闫秋艳1, 董飞1, 贾亚琴1, 李峰1, 杨峰1, 鲁晋秀1, 高丽娟2, 张建诚3, 王苗1 1. 山西农业大学小麦研究所, 山西 临汾 041000

2. 山西省襄汾县农业农村局
, 山西 襄汾 041500

3. 山西农业大学棉花研究所
, 山西 运城 044000 
sxnkyxmstgb@163.com;zhangjc@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨不同耕作方式对山西晋南旱地土壤蓄水变化特征及小麦产量的影响,以"晋麦92号"为试验材料,连续2年研究休闲期免耕+常规条播、休闲期免耕+探墒沟播、休闲期深松+常规条播和休闲期深翻+常规条播4种耕作模式对麦田土壤蓄水量及变化特征、小麦产量和水分利用效率的影响。结果表明:休闲期免耕条件下,沟播较常规条播更有利于提高100-200 cm土层蓄水量。沟播对旱地小麦产量的增加效果不明显或略有降低,2个年份水分利用效率分别降低3.6%和9.3%。休闲期深松和深翻比免耕均能提高旱地小麦播前和返青期0-200 cm土壤蓄水量,以深翻效果最佳,这种增加作用主要集中在0-100 cm土层。小麦产量在2个年度均表现为休闲期深翻+常规条播处理最高(较休闲期免耕+常规条播处理增产44.6%和147.2%)。产量增加与地上部干物重和穗粒数呈显著正相关。深松和深翻使2个年度水分利用效率分别增加12.7%和46.74%,53.70%和94.91%,且在较干旱年份(2018—2019年)增加效果越明显。可见,休闲期连续2年深松和深翻均能提高土壤蓄水量,提高旱地小麦产量和水分利用效率。免耕条件下,沟播对小麦产量影响因年份不同而异,仍需进一步探讨。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the variation characteristics of soil water storage and the potential yield improvement of dryland wheat by different tillage practices in south area of Shanxi Province. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of two consecutive years tillage models (no tillage + drilling sowing, no tillage + furrow sowing, subsoiling + drilling sowing, and deep tillage + drilling sowing) on soil water storage, yield and water use efficiency of dryland wheat with Jinmai 92 as experimental material. The results showed that under no-tillage condition, furrow sowing performs more soil water storage in 100-200 cm depths compared with drilling sowing. The increasing effect of furrow sowing on wheat yield showed weak and even slightly decreased in drought years of 2018-2019. Furthermore, furrow sowing decreased water use efficiency by 3.6% and 9.3% during the two years, respectively. Subsoiling and deep tillage in fallow period increased soil water storage of 0-200 cm before sowing and regreen stage, of which deep tillage performed excellent in water contention. Besides, the increasing effect was mainly concentrated in 0-100 cm depth. During the two experimental years, deep tillage increased yield greatly by 44.6% and 147.2%. There was significant positive correlations between yield and aboveground biomass and grain numbers per spike. Subsoiling and deep tillage increased water use efficiency by 12.7%, 46.74% and 53.70%, 94.91% during the two years, respectively, and the more obvious effect was obtained in the drier year of 2018-2019. Therefore, deep tillage and subsoiling for two consecutive years in fallow period can improve the water storage capacity and the yield, water use efficiency of dryland wheat. The effect of furrow sowing on wheat yield under no tillage condition varies with different years, which needs further discussion.
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