文章摘要
左婷, 王新霞, 侯琼, 倪亮, 倪玥敏, 王剑, 倪吾钟.稻-麦轮作体系不同施肥模式对氮肥利用效率和土壤有效养分平衡的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(1):213~221,228
稻-麦轮作体系不同施肥模式对氮肥利用效率和土壤有效养分平衡的影响
Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Crops and Available Nutrient Balance in Soil as Affected by Different Fertilization Modes with a Rice-wheat Rotation
投稿时间:2020-08-20  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.01.031
中文关键词: 水稻  小麦  有机肥  化肥  部分替代  氮肥利用效率  土壤有效养分
英文关键词: rice (Oryza sativa L.)  wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  organic manure  chemical fertilizers  partial replacement  nitrogen use efficiency  soil available nutrient
基金项目:农业农村部农业绿色发展先行先试支撑体系建设专项(安吉县)(NG/LS2020-71-05);国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2014ZX07101-012)
作者单位E-mail
左婷1, 王新霞1, 侯琼1, 倪亮2, 倪玥敏2, 王剑1, 倪吾钟1 1. 浙江大学环境与资源学院, 浙江省农业资源与环境重点实验室, 杭州 310058

2. 浙江大学农业试验站
, 杭州 310058 
wzni@zju.edu.cn;2392149668@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      土壤肥力和养分利用效率是保障可持续粮食生产的基础。通过田间试验研究了稻—麦轮作体系下不同施肥模式氮肥利用效率和土壤有效养分的变化,结果表明:在减少养分总投入量的条件下,有机肥部分替代化肥处理(RF-OM和RF-S处理)水稻地上部总生物量显著高于LRF处理(P < 0.05),与FP处理差异不大;小麦秸秆生物量与FP和LRF处理差异均不显著,籽粒生物量及地上部总生物量与LRF处理相差不大。水稻收获期RF-OM处理地上部主要器官含氮量与LRF处理差异不显著,氮素积累总量显著高于LRF处理(P < 0.05);小麦收获期RF-OM和RF-S处理秸秆、籽粒含氮量和氮素积累量与LRF处理均无显著差异。收获期RF-OM和RF-S处理水稻糙米和稻壳、小麦秸秆和籽粒含磷量及磷素积累量与FP和LRF处理差异都不大;水稻秸秆、稻壳及小麦秸秆含钾量和钾素积累量均显著高于FP和LRF处理(P < 0.05)。有机肥部分替代化肥处理水稻、小麦氮肥农学利用率、氮肥表观回收率和氮肥偏生产力与FP和LRF处理相比均显著提高(P < 0.05),氮素籽粒生产效率也高于FP和LRF处理,甚至达到显著水平(P < 0.05)。试验表明,水稻、小麦收获期增钾处理(RF-OM和RF-S处理)土壤速效钾、缓效钾含量显著高于FP和LRF处理(P < 0.05),水稻收获期土壤碱解氮和小麦收获期土壤有效磷含量与LRF处理差异不大,同时,经1个稻—麦轮作周期后,4个施肥处理土壤有效养分(碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾、缓效钾)含量均高于供试土壤。有机肥部分替代化肥能显著提高稻麦氮肥利用效率,有利于土壤有效养分平衡,并显著提高土壤速效钾和缓效钾养分含量,是适宜的稻麦化肥减量和稳产增效施用技术。
英文摘要:
      Soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency are the basis for sustainable food production. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilization modes on nitrogen use efficiency of crops and available nutrient balance in soil with a rice-wheat rotation. The results showed that the rice shoot biomass of RF-OM and RF-S treatments with the reduced total nutrient inputs were significantly higher than that of LRF treatment (P < 0.05), similar to that of FP treatment. The differences of wheat straw biomass among the four fertilization treatments were not significant, the wheat grain biomass and shoot biomass of RF-OM and RF-S treatments were similar to that of LRF treatment. At rice harvesting stage, the nitrogen contents in the main shoot organs of RF-OM treatment was similar to those of LRF treatment, but the total nitrogen amount accumulated in shoots was significantly higher than that of LRF (P < 0.05). For wheat plants, the nitrogen contents and accumulation amounts in straws or grains of RF-OM and RF-S treatments were not significantly different from LRF treatment. At rice or wheat harvesting stage, the phosphorus contents and accumulation amounts in brown rice, rice husks, wheat straws and grains of RF-OM and RF-S treatments were not significantly different from FP and LRF treatments. As a result of increasing potassium doses, potassium contents and accumulation amounts in rice straws, rice husks and wheat straws were significantly higher than those of FP or LRF treatments (P < 0.05). Nitrogen agronomic efficiency, nitrogen apparent recovery and nitrogen partial factor productivity of RF-OM and RF-S treatments for rice or wheat were significantly higher than those of FP or LRF treatment (P < 0.05), the nitrogen grain production efficiency was also higher than that of FP or LRF treatment, even significantly (P < 0.05). At rice or wheat harvesting stage, soil exchangeable and slow-release potassium concentrations of RF-OM and RF-S treatments with raising potassium dosages were significantly higher than those of FP and LRF treatments. Soil alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen concentrations at rice harvesting stage and soil available phosphorus concentrations at wheat harvesting stage of RF-OM and RF-S treatments were not significantly different from LRF treatment. After a whole rice-wheat rotation, concentrations of soil available nutrients (alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, slow-release potassium) of the four fertilization treatments were all higher than those of the initial soil. Organic manure used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers is able to significantly increasing crop nitrogen use efficiency, being conducive to the balance of soil available nutrients and significant increases in the concentrations of soil exchangeable potassium and slow-release potassium, which can be regarded as a suitable technique for reducing application of chemical fertilizers, stabling grain yields and increasing fertilization efficiency in rice and wheat cropping.
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