文章摘要
汪星, 张敬晓, 汪有科, 吕望, 路梅, 辛小桂.自然降雨对干化土壤水分恢复有效性分析[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(1):161~168
自然降雨对干化土壤水分恢复有效性分析
The Effectiveness of Natural Rainfall on the Restoration of Water in the Dried Soil
投稿时间:2020-08-16  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.01.024
中文关键词: 自然降雨  干化土壤  土壤水分  有效性  累积降雨
英文关键词: natural rainfall  dry soil  soil moisture  effectiveness  cumulative precipitation
基金项目:2020宁夏自治区重点研发计划项目(2020BEB04005);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0504703)
作者单位E-mail
汪星1, 张敬晓2,3, 汪有科4, 吕望5, 路梅2, 辛小桂4 1. 宁夏大学农学院, 银川 750021

2. 河北水利电力学院
, 河北 沧州 061000

3. 中国水利水电科学研究院
, 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验, 北京 100038

4. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
, 陕西 杨凌 712100

5. 黄河水利科学研究院
, 郑州 450003 
zhangjingxiao198704@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      研究自然降雨对干化土壤水分恢复的有效性,有利于合理利用降水资源,加强干化土壤水分管理,促进土壤干层得到有效恢复。在陕北米脂试验站设置野外地下大型土柱,通过2014—2019年连续定位监测降雨、土壤含水率状况,分析自然降雨对干化土壤水分恢复的有效性。结果表明:(1)从深层干化土壤水分恢复角度考虑,黄土丘陵半干旱区降雨可以分为3种类型:表层入渗快速蒸发型、浅层入渗缓慢蒸发型和深层入渗补给型。其中深层入渗补给型降雨为有效降雨,该类型雨量 > 26 mm,能够对深层干化土壤产生有效水分补给。2014—2019年发生深层入渗补给型降雨仅16次,累积雨量791.8 mm,降雨次数、降雨量的有效率分别为4.64%和35.19%。(2)月尺度条件下,降雨量(P)与逐月入渗深度(Z逐月)、月累积入渗深度(Z累积)均呈二次函数关系变化,Z逐月=-0.0102P2+3.955P-6.7335(R2=0.963 9),Z累积=-0.0003P2-0.1331P+191.71(R2=0.920 8)。(3)年尺度条件下,2014—2019年雨量分别为187.6,391.6,590.8,337.6,342.4,400.0 mm,降雨逐年引发的入渗深度依次为160,220,400,260,260,120 cm,累积入渗深度依次可达180,220,400,700,1 000,1 400 cm。研究结果对揭示自然降水恢复干化土壤机理,加强土壤干层人工蓄水保墒技术,合理选择保墒措施,以及促进当地生态环境建设具有积极的推动作用。
英文摘要:
      Studying on the effectiveness of natural rainfall on the water restoration in the dried soil was conducive to use precipitation rationally, to strengthen the management of the dried soil water, and to promote the effective restoration of the soil dry layers. By setting a large underground soil column in Mizhi test station located in northern Shaanxi, the precipitation and soil moisture content were monitored continuously from 2014 to 2019. And the effectiveness of natural rainfall for the remediation of dry soil moisture was analyzed. The results showed that: (1) From the perspective of water remediation in deep dried soil, rainfall in the semi-arid loess hilly region could be divided into three types: surface layers infiltration with rapid evaporation, shallow layers infiltration with slow evaporation and deep layers infiltration with water recharge. The type of deep layers infiltration with water recharge rainfall was effective, and others were ineffective. The precipitation of this type was usually greater than 26 mm and could effectively recharge water to the deep dried soil. From 2014 to 2019, there were only 16 times of deep layers infiltration with water recharge rainfall, and the cumulative precipitation was 791.8 mm. The precipitation frequency and effective rate were 4.64% and 35.19%, respectively. (2) On a monthly scale, the precipitation (P) showed the quadratic function changes with the monthly infiltration depth (Z) and monthly cumulative infiltration depth (Zaccumulation): Z=-0.0102Pmonth2+3.955Pmonth-6.7335(R2=0.963 9), Zaccumulation=-0.0003Pmonth2-0.1331Pmonth+191.71(R2=0.920 8). (3) On the annual scale, the precipitation from 2014 to 2019 was 187.6, 391.6, 590.8, 337.6, 342.4 and 400.0 mm in sequence. The infiltration depths caused by rainfall year by year were 160, 220, 400, 260, 260 and 120 cm, and the cumulative infiltration depths were 180, 220, 400, 700, 1 000 and 1 400 cm, respectively. The research results played a positive role in revealing the mechanism of natural precipitation restoration of dried soil, strengthening the technology of artificial water storage and soil moisture conservation in the dried layers, selecting the measures of soil moisture conservation rationally and promoting the local ecological environment construction.
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