文章摘要
何煦, 桑琦明, 郑粉莉, 王一菲.东北不同黑土厚度区多营力作用的坡面土壤侵蚀试验研究[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(1):103~109,115
东北不同黑土厚度区多营力作用的坡面土壤侵蚀试验研究
An Experimental Study on Impact of Multiples Agent Actions on Sloping Water Erosion in Different Mollic Thickness Regions of Northeast China
投稿时间:2020-06-22  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.01.015
中文关键词: 不同黑土厚度区  侵蚀营力  叠加作用
英文关键词: different mollic thickness regions  erosion agents  superposition action
基金项目:美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程专项子课题"黑土侵蚀风险评估及坡耕地保土提质技术集成"(XDA23060502);国家重点研发计划项目"黑土侵蚀防治机理与调控技术"(2016YFE0202900)
作者单位E-mail
何煦1, 桑琦明1, 郑粉莉1,2, 王一菲1 1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100

2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
, 陕西 杨凌 712100 
flzh@ms.iswc.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      量化东北黑土区多种外营力作用的坡面复合土壤侵蚀过程,将为坡面水保措施的精确布置提供重要科学依据。基于野外模拟试验,分析了东北典型薄层黑土区(宾县)、中层黑土区(海伦市)和厚层黑土区(克山县)多营力叠加作用的坡面水蚀特征。野外模拟降雨的试验处理包括仅水蚀的试验处理(I)、冻融+水力叠加作用的试验处理(Ⅱ)和冻融+风力+水力叠加作用的试验处理(Ⅲ)。结果表明:与仅有水蚀作用的试验处理相比,冻融作用使典型薄层、中层和厚层黑土厚度区的坡面径流深度分别减小29.4%,39.3%,32.1%;而其使坡面水蚀量分别增加16.3%,36.0%,26.3%;冻融和风力叠加作用使3个黑土厚度区的坡面径流深度分别减少3.6%,4.1%,10.8%,而其坡面水蚀量分别增加38.5%,102.1%,64.1%。试验条件下,从厚层黑土区到中层黑土区再到薄层黑土区,坡面径流深度和坡面侵蚀量均呈增加趋势。冻融作用和冻融+风力叠加作用对3个黑土厚度区坡面水蚀的影响程度从大到小依次皆为海伦黑土 > 克山黑土 > 宾县黑土。冻融作用使土壤硬度和土壤抗剪强度分别减小24.4%~36.7%和21.3%~23.9%,从而使土壤可蚀性增加,导致坡面水蚀量增加。地表在风力作用下形成了不同深度和不同大小的风蚀凹痕微形态,导致坡面径流集中和流速增加12.4%~19.1%,坡面径流侵蚀能力和搬运能力增加,从而使坡面水蚀量增加。
英文摘要:
      Quantifying hillslope soil erosion process will provide an important basis for arrangement of sloping soil and water conservation measures. Thus, a field simulated rainfall experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of freeze-thaw, wind and water agent superposition action on sloping soil erosion in the typical thin mollic thikness region (Binxian county), middle mollic thikness region (Hailun city) and thick mollic thikness region (Keshan county). The experimental treatments included three treatments of only water erosion (I), freeze-thaw + water agent superposition action (Ⅱ) and freeze-thaw + wind + water agent superposition action (Ⅲ). The results showed that compared with the experimental treatment of water erosion only, freeze-thaw action decreased runoff depth in the Binxian, Hailun and Keshan mollic thikness regions by 29.4%, 39.3% and 32.1%, respectively; while it increased water erosion rate by 16.3%, 36.0% and 26.3%, respectively. The freeze-thaw and wind agent superposition actions decreased runoff depth in these three mollic thickness regions by 3.6%, 4.1% and 10.8%, respectively, but it increased water erosion rate by 38.5%, 102.1% and 64.1%, respectively. Under the experimental treatments, both sloping runoff depth and water erosion rates tended to increase from the thick mollic thikness region to the middle mollic thikness region and then to the thin mollic thikness region. The effects of freeze-thaw action and freeze-thaw + wind agent superposition actions on sloping water erosion rate among these three different mollic thickness regions were in orders of Hailun Mollisol > Keshan Mollisol > Binxian Mollisol. The freeze-thaw action reduced soil hardness and soil shear strength by 24.4% ~ 36.7% and 21.3% ~ 23.9%, respectively and increased soil erodibility, thus it increased sloping water erosion rate. The surface wind erosion formed the micro-morphology of wind erosion dent, which enhanced the surface flow concentration and increased flow velocity by 12.4% ~ 19.1%; then runoff depth erosivity and transport capacity were increased, thus sloping water erosion rate increased.
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