文章摘要
崔璨, 王小燕, 孙宁婷, 陈方鑫, 陈晓燕, 龙翼.三峡库区典型农业小流域次降雨产沙过程及其影响因素[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(1):17~23
三峡库区典型农业小流域次降雨产沙过程及其影响因素
Sediment Yield Process and Its Influencing Factors Under Sub-rainfall in Typical Agricultural Small Watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir Area
投稿时间:2020-06-01  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.01.003
中文关键词: 三峡库区  农业小流域  侵蚀性降雨  产沙过程  降雨量  次降雨侵蚀力
英文关键词: Three Gorges Reservoir area  agricultural small watershed  erosive rainfall  sediment yield process  rainfall amount  sub-rainfall erosivity
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(XDJK2017B025);重庆市基础科学与前沿技术研究专项(cstc2017jcyjAX0296);重庆市技术创新与应用示范项目(社会民生类重点研发项目)(cstc2018jscx-mszd0340);重庆市大学生创新训练项目(S201910635010)
作者单位E-mail
崔璨1, 王小燕1, 孙宁婷1, 陈方鑫1, 陈晓燕1, 龙翼2 1. 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715

2. 中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
, 成都 610041 
youblue@swu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探究引起三峡库区农业小流域土壤侵蚀的主要次降雨因子,通过天然降雨观测资料,分析忠县石盘丘小流域2019年侵蚀性降雨年内分布特征和典型次降雨条件下A和B 2个集水区产沙过程的变化规律,采用相关性分析方法,揭示次降雨产沙的主要影响因素。结果表明:(1)全年119场降雨资料中,有19场为侵蚀性降雨。全年侵蚀性中雨共发生10次,是侵蚀性降雨中最常见的降雨类型。暴雨及以上降雨是造成研究区产沙量最大的降雨类型。(2)在典型中雨、大雨和暴雨产沙事件中,B集水区产沙量分别是A集水区的5.13,1.66,7.56倍。对3场典型次降雨产沙过程进行分析发现,B集水区产沙过程线随降雨历时的延长,变化程度更剧烈。(3)各PIn因子与研究区产沙量的相关性系数大小排序为PI30 > PI10 > PI15 > PI60 > PI5 > PI90 > PI。对各类降雨因子与研究区的产沙量进行相关性分析,系数大小排序为P > PIn > In > I > T。A、B集水区产沙量与次降雨量PPI30均存在极显著正相关性。总之,在三峡库区开展水土保持工作时,要加强对暴雨及以上降雨造成农业小流域水土流失的监测与预警响应能力;PPI30能较好地反映三峡库区天然次降雨对农业小流域侵蚀产沙的影响;对天然降雨条件下的次降雨侵蚀力进行估算时,可将PI30作为主要参考因子;农林水复合生态系统与结构简单的传统农耕模式相比,具有更丰富多元的层次结构,不仅能全面开发利用小流域的农业资源,更有利于保持水土,且其对降雨环境变化的适应性也更强。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the main sub-rainfall factors that cause soil erosion in the agricultural small watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, the study selected the Shipanqiu small watershed located in the heart of the Three Gorges Reservoir area as the research area, and analyzed the distribution characteristics of erosive rainfall in 2019 and the variation law of sediment yield process in catchment A and catchment B under typical sub-rainfall, and the correlation analysis method was used to explore the main influencing factors of sediment erosion caused by sub-rainfall. The results showed that: (1) Of the 119 rainfall events for the whole year, 19 were erosive events, including 10 erosive moderate rainfall events. The erosive moderate rainfall was the most common type in erosive rainfall events. Rainstorm and above is the type that caused the largest amount of sediment in the study area. (2) In the typical moderate rain, heavy rain and rainstorm sediment yield events, the amount of sediment yield in catchment B was 5.13, 1.66 and 7.56 times that of catchment A respectively. The analysis of the sediment yield process of three typical sub-rains showed that the variation of sediment yield line in catchment B was more dramatic with the extension of rainfall duration. (3) The correlation coefficient of PIn factors and the amount of sediment yield in the study area ranked as PI30 > PI10 > PI15 > PI60 > PI5 > PI90 > PI. Correlation analysis of various rainfall factors and the amount of sediment yield in the study area ranked as P > PIn > In > I > T. There was a very significant positive correlation between the amount of sediment yield and the indicators P and PI30 in catchment A and B. To sum up, when carrying out soil and water conservation work in the three Gorges reservoir area, it is necessary to strengthen the ability of monitoring and early warning response to soil and water loss in agricultural small watershed caused by rainstorm and above. P and PI30 can reflect the impact of natural sub-rainfall on sediment yield in small watersheds of Three Gorges reservoir well. When estimating the rainfall erosivity of natural sub-rainfall, PI30 can be used as the main reference factor. Compared with the traditional farming mode with simple structure, agroforestry-water complex ecosystem has a richer and more diverse structure, which can not only fully develop and utilize agricultural resources in small watershed, but also be more conducive to soil and water conservation, and it is also more adaptable to the changes of rainfall environment.
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