文章摘要
崔建平, 程强, 陈平, 郭仁松, 王亮, 郑子漂, 林涛, 田立文, 徐海江.深松条件下滴灌频次对土壤理化指标及棉花产量的调节效应[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(1):263~269,276
深松条件下滴灌频次对土壤理化指标及棉花产量的调节效应
Effects of Drip Irrigation Frequency on Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics and Cotton Yield Under Subsoiling Condition
投稿时间:2018-06-25  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.01.041
中文关键词: 灌溉频次  深松  土壤理化性质  产量
英文关键词: irrigation frequency  subsoiling  physical and chemical characteristics of soil  yield
基金项目:农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503117);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0101605);新疆农业科学院青年基金项目(xjnkq-2016004);自治区科技支疆项目(2017E0251);自治区重点研发计划项目(2016B01001-2-1);国家棉花产业技术体系项目(CARS-15-50)
作者单位
崔建平1, 程强2, 陈平2, 郭仁松1, 王亮1, 郑子漂1, 林涛1, 田立文1, 徐海江1 1. 新疆农业科学院经济作物研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830091

2. 阿瓦提县气象局
, 新疆 阿瓦提 843200 
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中文摘要:
      研究深松条件下灌溉频次对土壤理化指标及棉花产量的调节效应,对优化新疆棉田滴灌制度提供理论依据。2016-2017年,在深松40 cm条件下,设置4,7,10 d/次3个滴灌频次,灌溉总量均为3 600 m3/hm2的田间试验,测定并分析了不同滴灌频次对棉田0-60 cm土层内土壤容重、紧实度、含水量、盐分含量及产量构成的调节效应。结果表明:棉花生育期内,不同处理0-40 cm土层内的土壤容重表现为10 d/次 > 4 d/次 > 7 d/次处理的变化趋势,40-60 cm土层则以4 d/次处理略高,7 d/次处理在0-60 cm土层深度土壤容重和紧实度均处在较低水平;不同土层深度下,各生育时期7 d/次处理土壤含水量可维持在较高水平,2年平均分别较4,10 d/次处理高出14.1%和18.0%;0-60 cm土层内,处理间各生育期土壤含盐量变化情况表现为4 d/次 > 7 d/次 > 10 d/次处理,随着灌水频次减少土壤盐分浓度峰值逐渐下移,不同处理在20-40 cm深度形成明显的积盐区;不同滴灌频次下,棉花单株结铃数、单铃重和籽棉产量均以7 d/次处理最高,4 d/次处理最低,与4,10 d/次处理相比,2年平均籽棉产量分别高出12.1%和10.0%。因此,适中的灌水频次(7 d/次)有利于维持作物生长的土壤耕作环境及适宜的水分盐分环境,可促成棉花产量的形成。
英文摘要:
      The effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil physical and chemical indicators and cotton yield under subsoiling were studied, which provided a theoretical basis for optimizing the drip irrigation system in cotton fields of Xinjiang. In this study, three different drip irrigation frequencies (4 days/times, 7 days/times and 10 days/times, respectively) and 3 600 m3/hm2 as the total irrigation amount were selected. The experiment was carried out under the mechanical subsoiling of 40 cm from May to September of 2016 and 2017 in the Tarim Basin. The soil bulk density, compaction, water content, salt content and yield components in 0-60 cm soil layer of cotton field were determined and analyzed. The results showed that during the growth period of cotton, the soil bulk density in 0-40 cm soil layer showed a trend of 10 days/times > 4 days/times > 7 days/times, and in 40-60 cm soil layer the value of the 4 days/times treatment was slightly higher. The soil bulk density and compaction of 0-60 cm soil layer were maintained at a low level in 7 days/times treatment. Under different soil depths, the soil water content of 7 days/times treatment maintained at a higher level during every growth period. The average value in two years was 14.1% and 18.0% higher that of 4 days/times and 10 days/times treatment, respectively. In the 0-60 cm soil layer, the soil salinity during the growth period was 4 days/times > 7 days/times > 10 days/times treatment. With the decreasing of drip irrigation frequency, the peak of soil salinity decreased gradually, and an obvious salt accumulation area was formed at the depth of 20-40 cm. Under different drip irrigation frequencies, the number of bolls per plant, single boll weight and seed cotton yield were the highest in 7 days/times treatment, and the lowest in 4 days/times treatment. Compared with 4 days/times and 10 days/times treatment, the average seed cotton yield in two years in 7 days/times treatment was increased by 12.1% and 10.0%, respectively. Therefore, moderate drip irrigation frequency (7 days/times) was conducive to maintaining the favorable soil cultivation environment and suitable water and salt environment for crop growth, which could promote the formation of cotton yield.
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