文章摘要
舒晓晓, 门杰, 马阳, 薛澄, 彭正萍, 雷光宇.减氮配施有机物质对土壤氮素淋失的调控作用[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(1):186~191
减氮配施有机物质对土壤氮素淋失的调控作用
Regulation of Reduced Nitrogen and Organic Matter Application on Nitrogen Leaching
投稿时间:2018-07-23  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.01.030
中文关键词: 氮素减施  有机调控  NH4+-N  NO3--N  氮素平衡
英文关键词: reduced nitrogen application  organic regulation  NH4+-N  NO3--N  nitrogen balance
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0300905)
作者单位E-mail
舒晓晓1,2,3, 门杰1, 马阳1, 薛澄1, 彭正萍1, 雷光宇2,3 1. 河北农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 河北省农田生态环境重点实验室, 河北 保定 071001

2. 陕西省土地工程建设集团有限责任公司
, 西安 710075

3. 陕西地建土地工程技术研究院有限责任公司
, 西安 710075 
pengzhengping@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      采用室内土柱模拟试验方法,研究不同氮肥施用下1 m土体中氮素的分布和移动特征,揭示土壤氮素动态变化规律。结果表明:FN(农民习惯施机氮用量)、RN(根据土壤养分供应和作物需求确定的推荐机氮用量)显著增加了土壤上层NH4+-N和NO3--N向下层淋失。RN+HA(与推荐机氮纯养分相等的锌腐酸尿素)和RN40%+OMB(推荐机氮肥减60%基础上配施自制有机调理物质)可延长上层土壤NH4+-N峰值出现时间,降低下层NH4+-N。淋溶结束后,等氮量下增施HA较RN降低60 cm以下NH4+-N残留29.7%~54.2%;降低60-80 cm NO3--N累积17.4%。RN40%+OMB处理机氮肥用量最小,0-20 cm的NH4+-N最高,40-100 cm稳定在2.0 mg/kg左右;0-20,20-40 cm土层NO3--N较RN+HA增加12.3%和2.0%,显著降低40 cm以下NO3--N残留。RN+HA和RN40%+OMB较RN的土壤总机氮残留分别减少7.4%和20.2%,降低表观淋失率。因此,RN40%+OMB可较好地抑制氮素下移,降低氮素淋失风险,为减少氮素淋失、明确合理氮肥施用方式提供科学依据。
英文摘要:
      The distribution and movement features of nitrogen in 1 m soil layer under different nitrogen fertilizer application were studied through artificial soil column simulation experiment in laboratory to reveal the dynamic changes of nitrogen in farmland soil. Results indicated that FN (the amount of inorganic nitrogen used by farmers) and RN (inorganic nitrogen dosage recommended by soil nutrient supply and crop demand) significantly increased the leaching of NH4+-N and NO3--N from upper soil layer to lower soil layer. The treatments of RN+HA (zinc humic acid urea equivalent to the recommended inorganic nitrogen with RN) and RN40%+OMB (60% inorganic nitrogen fertilizer of RN with homemade organic substances) could prolong the peak time of NH4+-N in the upper soil layer and reduce the NH4+-N in the lower soil layer. At the end of leaching experiment, comparing with RN, the application of humic acid (HA) decreased the NH4+-N residue by 29.7%~54.2% in the soil layer below 60 cm under the same amount of nitrogen, and reduced the accumulation of NO3--N by 17.4% in 60-80 cm soil layer. In RN 40%+OMB treatment, the dosage of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was the minimum, and NH4+-N was the highest in 0-20 cm soil layer and it was stable at 2.0 mg/kg in 40-100 cm soil layer. Comparing with RN+HA, NO3--N in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layer in this treatment increased by 12.3% and 2.0%, respectively, and the NO3--N residue in the soil layer lower than 40 cm was significantly reduced. Contrasted with RN, the total inorganic nitrogen residue of RN+HA and RN40%+OMB decreased by 7.4% and 20.2%, respectively, and the apparent leaching rate was decreased. Therefore, RN40%+OMB could inhibite the downward movement of nitrogen and reduce the risk of nitrogen leaching, and these results provide a scientific basis for reducing the nitrogen leaching.
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