文章摘要
周宣, 王若水, 李超楠, 刘韵, 毕华兴, 杨宗儒.不同水分调控对晋西黄土区苹果×大豆间作系统细根分布与耗水特性的影响[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(1):118~126
不同水分调控对晋西黄土区苹果×大豆间作系统细根分布与耗水特性的影响
Effects of Different Water Regulation on the Fine Root Distribution and Water Consumption Characteristics of Apple-Soybean Allay Cropping System in Losses Plateau of West Shanxi Province, China
投稿时间:2018-08-18  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.01.020
中文关键词: 覆盖和灌溉  果农间作  根长密度  耗水量
英文关键词: mulching and irrigation  fruit-crop intercropping  root length density  water consumption
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD07B0502);中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2017PT12);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0501704);国家自然科学基金项目(31470638);科技创新服务能力建设-科研基地建设-林果业生态环境功能提升协同创新中心(PXM2018_014207_000024)
作者单位E-mail
周宣1, 王若水1,2, 李超楠1, 刘韵1, 毕华兴1,2,3,4,5,6, 杨宗儒7 1. 北京林业大学水土保持学院, 北京 100083

2. 山西吉县森林生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站
, 北京 100083

3. 水土保持国家林业局重点实验室(北京林业大学)
, 北京 100083

4. 北京市水土保持工程技术研究中心(北京林业大学)
, 北京 100083

5. 林业生态工程教育部工程研究中心(北京林业大学)
, 北京 100083

6. 北京林果业生态环境功能提升协同创新中心
, 北京 102206

7. 山西吉县林业服务中心
, 山西 临汾 042200 
wrsily_2002@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探求适于晋西黄土区果农间作系统的水分调控措施,选取该地区典型的苹果×大豆间作系统为研究对象,结合覆盖与调亏灌溉2种节水措施,分析了不同水分调控措施对苹果和大豆根系空间分布、耗水量与水分利用等指标的影响。试验设置灌溉上限3个水平:田间持水量的55%(W1,低水),70%(W2,中水)和85%(W3,高水),2种覆盖材料:秸秆覆盖(M1)和地膜覆盖(M2)。结果表明:水分调控措施增加了苹果和大豆总根长密度,且扩大了苹果在水平和垂直方向上的根长分布。苹果根长密度与距树行距离呈负相关,而大豆则呈正相关,且均与垂直深度存在负相关关系。大豆鼓粒期土壤水分随距树行距离的增加先减后增,最小值为距树行1.5~2.0 m,与清耕(CK0)和单一覆盖(CK1和CK2)相比,水分调控措施能显著提高0-60 cm土层内的土壤水分。聚类分析表明水分调控下苹果和大豆主要水分竞争区域为距树行0.5~1.5 m、垂直方向0-40 cm土层范围内。M2W2处理苹果细根集中分布在20-40 cm土层,大豆细根主要在0-20 cm土层,根系错位分布缓解了种间水分竞争,其耗水量可较W3组减少40~50 mm,且其产量和水分利用可分别较其他水分调控措施提高29.37%~41.92%,12.29%~53.35%,同时可使间作系统净收益最大,可达2 976.5元/hm2。由此建议在未坐果的幼龄苹果树行间间作大豆时采用地膜覆盖措施,同时在分枝期灌水150 m3/hm2,结荚期灌水400 m3/hm2,鼓粒期灌水300 m3/hm2,可显著提高间作系统水分利用水平和经济效益。
英文摘要:
      In order to investigate the effects of different water regulations on the root spatial distribution, water consumption, water use and other indexes in a typical alley cropping system comprising apple (Malus pumila)-soybean (Glycine max), an experiment of mulching and irrigation coupling was carried out in the Loess Plateau of Shanxi Province. Three levels of irrigation thresholds were set:55% (low, W1), 70% (medium, W2), and 85% (high, W3) of field capacity. Meanwhile, two mulching materials including straw (M1) and plastic film (M2) were also set. The results indicated that the water regulation increased the total root length density of apple and soybean, and also expanded the root length distribution of apple in horizontal and vertical directions. The apple root length density was negatively correlated with the distance from the tree row while the soybeans had positive correlation, and both the crops had negative correlations with the vertical depth. The distribution of soil moisture increased first with the distance from trees to the crops then decreased at grain filling stage, and the minimum values occurred in the distance of 1.5~2.0 m away from the tree line. Compared with clean tillage treatment (CK0) and single mulching treatment (CK1 and CK2), the water regulation treatments increased the soil moisture in 0-60 cm depth significantly. The cluster analysis showed that the main competition area in soil moisture for the two plants was in the distance 0.5~1.5 m away from the tree row with soil depth of 0-40 cm. The apple fine roots in the M2W2 treatment were concentrated in 20-40 cm soil layer while the soybeans' in 0-20 cm soil layer, which alleviated water competition between the two species. Additionally, the water consumption in M2W2 could be reduced by 40~50 mm compared with W3 and the yield and water use efficiency could be increased by 29.37%~41.92% and 12.29%~53.35%, respectively, compared to other water regulation treatments. The net income could be 2 976.5 yuan/hm2. Above all, covering plastic film in young apple-soybean intercropping system, combined with irrigation amount of 150 m3/hm2 at branching stage, 400 m3/hm2 at podding stage and 300 m3/hm2 at grain filling stage could significantly increase the water use level and economic benefits in the intercropping system.
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