文章摘要
隋鹏祥, 张文可, 梅楠, 田平, 王英俨, 孙悦, 孟广鑫, 苏业涵, 齐华.不同秸秆还田方式对春玉米产量、水分利用和根系生长的影响[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(4):255~261
不同秸秆还田方式对春玉米产量、水分利用和根系生长的影响
Effects of Different Straw Returning Methods on Spring Maize Yield, Water Use and Root Growth
投稿时间:2018-02-28  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.04.040
中文关键词: 秸秆还田  产量  水分利用效率  根系  土壤养分
英文关键词: straw returning  yield  water use efficiency  root system  soil nutrient
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503116);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300103,2016YFD0300801)
作者单位E-mail
隋鹏祥, 张文可, 梅楠, 田平, 王英俨, 孙悦, 孟广鑫, 苏业涵, 齐华 沈阳农业大学农学院, 沈阳 110866 qihua10@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探究耕作方式和秸秆还田对春玉米产量、土壤水肥及根系分布的影响,通过连续两年设置耕作方式(旋耕、翻耕)与秸秆还田方式(秸秆还田、秸秆不还田)两因素田间定位试验,研究了春玉米产量和水分利用效率、根系及土壤水肥分布的特性。结果表明:旋耕和翻耕处理春玉米产量和水分利用效率差异不显著,但前者显著增加了干旱年份(2015年)0—30 cm土层的根长密度、根表面积密度和根干重密度,而后者显著降低了10—30 cm土层的土壤容重和紧实度,降低了0—40 cm土层的土壤含水量、有效磷和速效钾含量,提高了干旱年份30—60 cm和湿润年份(2016年)0—60 cm土层的根长密度、根表面积密度和根干重密度;秸秆还田较秸秆不还田处理显著增加了春玉米产量和水分利用效率,增加幅度分别为9.5%和7.3%,促进了干旱年份0—60 cm土层的根长密度和湿润年份30—60 cm土层的根长密度、根表面积密度和根干重密度的增加,还提高了0—60 cm土层的土壤含水量、硝态氮、有效磷和速效钾含量。因此,实施旋耕秸秆还田和翻耕秸秆还田可以改善土壤水肥分布,促进深层根系发育,提高春玉米的产量和水分利用效率。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the effects of tillage and straw management methods on spring maize yield, soil water and nutrient contents and root distribution, field experiments including two factors of tillage (rotary tillage, tilling) and straw management (straw returning to the field and straw removed) were conducted during two consecutive years. Spring maize yield, water use efficiency, soil nutrient and root distribution were analyzed. The results showed that two tillage treatments had the same yield and water use efficiency, and rotary tillage increased the root length density, root surface area density and root dry density of the 0-30 cm soil layers in the drought year (2015), while tilling significantly reduced bulk density and soil penetration resistance of the 10-30 cm soil layer, and reduced soil moisture content, soil available phosphorus content and soil available potassium content of the 0-40 cm soil layer, increased the root length density, root surface area density and root dry weight density of 30-60 cm soil layer in drought year and those of 0-60 cm soil layer in wet year (2016). The straw returning treatment increased spring maize yield by 9.5% and water use efficiency by 7.3%, and it promoted root length density of 0-60 cm soil layer in 2015, and increased root length density, root surface area density and root dry weight density of 30-60 cm soil layer in 2016. Meanwhile, straw returning increased the contents of soil water, nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium in the 0-60 cm soil layer. Overall, rotary and tilling tillage with straw returning can improve the distribution of soil water and fertilizer, and promote root growth in deep soil layers, increase yield and water use efficiency of spring maize.
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