文章摘要
梁海, 陈宝成, 韩慧芳, 王少博, 王桂伟, 陈剑秋.普通肥、控释掺混肥分层施肥对小麦生长的影响[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(4):240~245
普通肥、控释掺混肥分层施肥对小麦生长的影响
Effects of Layered Application of Common Fertilizer and Controlled-release Bulk-blend Fertilizer on Wheat Growth
投稿时间:2018-02-03  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.04.038
中文关键词: 分层施肥  土壤养分  小麦  产量  肥料利用率
英文关键词: layered fertilization  soil nutrition content  wheat  yield  utilization rate of fertilizer
基金项目:国家"十三五"重点研发计划项目"纳米复合包膜缓控释掺混肥料研制与应用"(2017YFD0200705);农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项"水浇地合理耕层构建技术指标研究"(201503117)
作者单位E-mail
梁海1,2, 陈宝成1,2, 韩慧芳1, 王少博1, 王桂伟1,2, 陈剑秋3 1. 土肥资源高效利用国家工程实验室, 山东 泰安 271018

2. 山东农业大学资源与环境学院
, 山东 泰安 271018

3. 养分资源高效开发与综合利用国家重点试验室
, 金正大生态工程集团股份有限公司, 山东 临沭 276000 
bcch108205@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了研究不同层次施肥对土壤养分及作物生长的影响,通过小麦盆栽试验,以农民习惯施肥(普通肥撒施后翻耕)为对照,设置不施肥、控释掺混肥混施、普通肥1层施肥加追肥、普通肥和控释掺混肥各1层(深度5 cm)、2层(5,10 cm)、3层(5,10,15 cm)施肥处理,筛选出普通肥、控释掺混肥各自最优的施肥层次,为田间分层施肥特别是目前农业推广的种肥同播技术提供支持。结果表明:与对照相比,普通肥1层、2层施肥处理显著增产14.02%和15.83%;普通肥两层施肥处理小麦生物量显著增加13.44%;控释掺混肥2层、3层施肥相比控释掺混肥混施处理显著增产7.47%和5.55%,小麦生物量差异不显著。小麦各个生长期的氮素供应普通肥以1层施肥或2层施肥为好,而控释掺混肥以2层施肥或3层施肥为好;不同处理的土壤有效磷、速效钾含量差异不显著。普通肥分层施肥处理氮肥利用率比对照分别提高44.4%,40.7%和62.9%,磷肥利用率分别提高35.7%,64.3%和42.8%,钾肥利用率分别提高16.7%,33.3%和53.3%,差异均达显著水平;而控释掺混肥各处理氮、钾肥利用率差异不显著,磷肥利用率则分别显著提高35.0%,30.0%和35.0%。在农业生产中,建议普通肥以2层(深度5,10 cm)施肥,控释掺混肥以2层(5,10 cm)或3层(5,10,15 cm)施肥的方式进行施肥。
英文摘要:
      A wheat pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different fertilization layers on soil nutrients and crop growth. The local farmer's customary fertilization (tillage after topsoil fertilization) was taken as control, and the following treatments was set:no fertilizer application, controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer topsoil fertilization then tillage, one layer fertilization and topdressing of common fertilizer, common fertilizer layered fertilization and controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer layered fertilization. The fertilization layers treatments included:one layer (5 cm), two layers (5 and 10 cm) and three layers (5, 10 and 15 cm). The aim was to select the optimal fertilization layers of common fertilizer and controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer respectively, and to provide the theoretical support for the technology of layered fertilization, especially for the technology of sowing and fertilization at the same time which is popularized now. The results showed that compared with the topsoil fertilization of common bulk-blend fertilizer, the wheat yield was increased by 14.02% and 15.83% significantly under one layer and two layers fertilization of common fertilizer, respectively, and the biomass was significantly increased by 13.44% under two layers fertilization of common fertilizer. Compared with controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer fertilization, the yield of two layers and three layers fertilization of controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer was significantly increased by 7.47% and 5.55% respectively, but the biomass was increased insignificantly. The nitrogen supplying of one layer and two layers of common fertilizer fitted better with every wheat growing stage than other treatments, and two and three layers fertilization of controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer better than other controlled-release bulk-blend layered fertilization. The contents of available phosphorus and available potassium were not significant among different treatments. Compared with the topsoil fertilization of common fertilizer, the nutrient use efficiency of common fertilizer layered fertilization was significantly increased by 44.4%, 40.7% and 62.9% (nitrogen), 35.7%, 64.3% and 42.8% (phosphorus) and 16.7%, 33.3% and 53.3% (potassium), respectively. But compared with the topsoil fertilization of controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer, only the phosphorus use efficiency of controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer layered fertilization was increased significantly by 35.0%, 35.7%, and 35.0% respectively. So, it was suggested that two layers (5 and 10 cm) fertilization of common fertilizer, two layers (5 and 10 cm) or three layers (5, 10 and 15 cm) fertilization of controlled-release bulk-blend fertilizer should be practiced in agricultural production.
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