文章摘要
田昌, 周旋, 谢桂先, 刘强, 荣湘民, 张玉平, 谭力彰, 彭建伟.控释尿素减施对双季稻田土壤剖面养分分布特征的影响[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(4):216~221
控释尿素减施对双季稻田土壤剖面养分分布特征的影响
Effects of Controlled-release Urea Application on Nutrient Distribution of Soil Profile from Double-rice Cropping Field
投稿时间:2018-01-08  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.04.034
中文关键词: 双季稻田  控释尿素  减量施肥  土壤养分  剖面分布
英文关键词: double-rice cropping field  controlled-release urea  reduction fertilization  soil nutrients  profile distribution
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"长江中下游水稻湖南化肥农药减施增效技术集成研究与示范"(2016YFD0200809);湖南省科技厅重点项目"化学肥料污染控制关键技术集成示范"(2016NK2112);湖南省教育厅平台项目"控释氮肥减量下南方稻田N2O排放特征及对水分管理的响应"(16K040)
作者单位E-mail
田昌1,2, 周旋3, 谢桂先1,2, 刘强1,2, 荣湘民1,2, 张玉平1,2, 谭力彰1, 彭建伟1,2 1. 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 土壤肥料资源高效利用国家工程实验室, 长沙 410128

2. 南方粮油作物协同创新中心
, 长沙 410128

3. 湖南省土壤肥料研究所
, 长沙 410125 
xieguixian@126.com;lq8053@hunau.net 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨双季稻田控释尿素施用对养分在土壤剖面的垂直分布与迁移的影响,通过长期田间定位试验,研究比较普通尿素(U)和控释尿素(CRU)减施稻田剖面的养分累积和分布。结果表明:随着土层深度的增加,土壤全氮、NO3-—N、有机质、全磷、速效磷和全钾含量呈下降趋势,NH4+—N含量先下降后升高,速效钾含量呈上升趋势,土壤pH升高且趋于稳定。施肥会降低0—20 cm土层pH和速效钾含量。与U处理相比,0—20 cm土层CRU处理全氮含量提高7.72%~19.45%,且随着施N量的增加呈上升趋势;40—60 cm土层CRU处理NH4+—N含量降低6.99%~19.23%。施用CRU可以有效降低土层NH4+—N向下淋溶,提高0—40 cm土层全氮和NO3-—N含量,避免土壤N素流失。施用CRU对不同深度土层有机质、速效磷、全磷、速效钾、全钾和pH的影响不显著,但减量过大会导致有机质降低。CRU减量10%~20%处理显著提高双季稻成熟期N、P、K的吸收量。相关分析表明,不同用量控释尿素处理早、晚稻成熟期N、P、K吸收量与籽粒产量均呈显著正相关。总之,CRU处理有效地控制N素向下淋溶,减少因N肥施用带来的潜在面源污染,而CRU减施可更好地维持和提高土壤的养分水平和肥力,促进养分累积,实现生态与经济效益的双赢。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the effects of controlled-release urea on vertical distribution and migration of nutrients in the profile of double-rice cropping field, a long-term field experiment was conducted to compare common urea (U) and reduction of controlled-release urea (CRU) in nutrient accumulation and distribution of paddy field profile. Results showed that with the increase of soil depth, total N, NO3--N, organic matter, total P, available P and total K content in soil decreased; NH4+-N content first decreased and then increased; available K content increased; soil pH increased to be stable. Fertilization could reduce pH and available K content in 0-20 cm soil. Compared with U treatment, total N content in 0-20 cm soil under CRU treatments increased by 7.72%~19.45%, and increased with the increase of N fertilizer rate; soil NH4+-N content in 40-60 cm under CRU treatments reduced by 6.99%~19.23%. Application of CRU could effectively reduce soil NH4+-N leaching, and increase total N and NO3--N content in 0-40 cm soil, to prevent soil N loss. Application of CRU had no significant effect on organic matter, available P, total P, available K, total K and pH in different depths of soil, but more reduction of CRU resulted in the decrease of organic matter. Reduced of CRU by 10%~20% treatments significantly increased N, P, K uptakes of double-cropping rice at maturity. Correlation analysis showed that N, P, K uptakes at maturity by different rates of CRU treatments was significantly positively related with grain yield in early- and late-rice. In conclusion, CRU treatments can effectively reduce N leaching and the potential non-point source pollution by N fertilizer application, and can improve soil nutrient levels and fertility, and finally promote nutrients accumulation, to realize win-win situation of ecological and economic benefits.
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