文章摘要
张妍, 李发东, 时鹏, 韦安磊.华北平原玉米种植中施入氮肥的去向研究[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(4):210~215
华北平原玉米种植中施入氮肥的去向研究
Study on the Fate of Nitrogen Fertilizer Applied to Maize Cropping System in the North China Plain
投稿时间:2018-02-26  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.04.033
中文关键词: 玉米  15N标记技术  氮肥利用  残留  损失率
英文关键词: maize  15N-label techniques  nitrogen fertilizer utilization  residue  loss ratio
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41601017,41771292,51208424);黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室开放课题基金项目(A314021402-1618);陕西省教育厅科研计划项目(15JK1762);陕西省自然科学基础研究项目(2017JQ4001)
作者单位E-mail
张妍1,2, 李发东3,4, 时鹏5, 韦安磊1 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院, 陕西省地表系统与环境承载力重点实验室, 西安 710127

2. 中科院水利部水土保持研究所
, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100

3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所
, 生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101

4. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院
, 北京 100190

5. 西安理工大学
, 西北旱区生态水利工程国家重点实验室, 西安 710048 
lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了定量研究玉米氮肥利用特性以及肥料氮的去向,设计了15N标记微区控制试验,设置3个施氮水平:不施氮肥(对照)、低氮处理(120 kg N/hm2)和高氮处理(240 kg N/hm2)。结果表明:土壤中残留15N量随施氮量增加而显著增加(P<0.05)。在空间分布上,总体呈现出随土壤深度先下降后上升的趋势,高氮处理和低氮处理15N累积量均以40—60 cm和60—80 cm土层最多,这两层残留15N总量分别占总投入量的37.55%和18.99%。与对照相比,施氮处理均显著提高了玉米地上、地下生物量和籽粒产量以及各部分吸氮量。虽然高氮处理较低氮处理施氮量增加了1倍,但籽粒产量仅增加0.14倍。氮肥农学效率与氮肥表观利用率随着施氮量增加而显著降低。高氮处理和低氮处理中玉米对15N标记氮肥的利用率分别为28.86%和31.15%,土壤氮残留率分别为50.42%和36.52%,当季进入地下水的比率分别为4.27%和0.68%,其他损失率分别为16.45%和32.33%。研究结果表明,施氮量为120 kg/hm2可有效增加玉米产量,同时提高氮肥利用率,减少土壤氮累积,减小氮肥施用产生的环境污染风险。
英文摘要:
      The 15N-label technique was employed in the maize field to quantify the nitrogen fertilizer utilization and its fate.The experiment was designed with three nitrogen fertilizer application rates (0, 120, 240 kg/hm2), and three replications were set up in each treatment. Results showed that soil residual 15N increased significantly with the increasing of nitrogen fertilizer application (P<0.05). For the spatial distribution, soil residual 15N showed a trend of decreasing first and then rising, and the accumulation of 15N in 40-60 cm and 60-80 cm soil layers were the maximum in both high nitrogen treatment (240 kg/hm2) and low nitrogen treatment (120 kg/hm2), and the residual 15N in these two soil layers accounted for 37.55% and 18.99% of the total input amount, respectively. Compared with the control, application of nitrogen fertilizer significantly improved the dry matter, grain yield and total nitrogen uptake rate of different parts of maize. Although the nitrogen application rate of high nitrogen treatment increased by 1 times compared with the low nitrogen treatment, the grain yield increased only 0.14 times. The agronomic efficiency and the apparent utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer decreased significantly with the increasing of nitrogen application rate. The utilization rates of nitrogen fertilizer labeled by 15N, the soil nitrogen residual rates, the proportion of leaching loss into groundwater and the other loss rates were 28.86%, 50.42%, 4.27% and 16.45% in the high nitrogen treatment, respectively, while these values of low nitrogen treatment were 31.15%, 36.52%, 0.68% and 32.33%, respectively. All these results showed that the nitrogen application of 120 kg/hm2 would be favorable to improve grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency, and reduce residual nitrogen rate in soil. Therefore, this nitrogen application rate was suggested to lighten the environment pollution risk.
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