文章摘要
谢勇, 赵易艺, 张玉平, 唐丽, 何石福, 石敦杰, 刘强, 荣湘民.南方丘陵地区生物黑炭和有机肥配施化肥的应用研究[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(4):197~203,215
南方丘陵地区生物黑炭和有机肥配施化肥的应用研究
Research on Application of Biochar and Organic Manure Combined with Chemical Fertilizers in Hilly Area of Southern China
投稿时间:2018-03-10  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.04.031
中文关键词: 生物黑炭  有机肥  产量  氮磷径流损失  肥料利用率  春玉米
英文关键词: biochar  organic fertilizer  yield  runoff loss of nitrogen and phosphorus  fertilizer use efficiency  spring maize
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAC09B01);湖南省教育厅平台项目(15K056);湖南省科技计划项目(2016JC2030)
作者单位E-mail
谢勇, 赵易艺, 张玉平, 唐丽, 何石福, 石敦杰, 刘强, 荣湘民 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 农田污染控制与农业资源利用湖南省重点实验室, 植物营养湖南省普通高等学校重点实验室, 土壤肥料资源高效利用国家工程实验室, 长沙 410128 rongxm2005@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      研究生物黑炭和有机肥配施化肥对旱地作物种植和养分损失的影响,旨在进一步探索高温多雨的南方丘陵地区旱地作物合理施肥和高产高效种植以及资源优化利用的有效途径。采用田间小区试验,设置了5个处理:不施肥(CK)、单施化肥(CF)、化肥+生物黑炭(CF+B)、有机无机肥配施(OF+CF)和有机无机肥配施且添加生物黑炭(OF+CF+B),探讨了生物黑炭和有机肥施用对春玉米产量、地表氮磷径流损失、作物氮磷肥料利用率的影响。结果表明:生物黑炭或有机肥的施用可显著增产8.2%~11.1%,但有机肥和生物黑炭结合施用增产效果最佳,增产率可高达13.7%。相比CF处理,CF+B处理可显著降低15.9%的氮素径流损失和24.2%磷素径流损失,显著提高26.3%和11.8%的地上部氮磷累积量;OF+CF处理可显著降低17.5%的氮素径流损失和25.0%磷素径流损失,提高36.5%(P<0.05)和8.2%(P>0.05)地上部氮磷累积量;OF+CF+B处理可显著降低33.3%的氮素径流损失和35.2%磷素径流损失,显著提高52.1%和29.0%地上部氮磷累积量,且氮磷肥料利用率最高,分别达49.1%和26.4%。OF+CF+B处理施肥方式一方面可促进春玉米旺盛生长,增加地表植被覆盖度和增强土壤的抗蚀性,显著降低了地表的径流体积;另一方面可以全面降低土壤氮磷养分溶解态和颗粒态的径流损失,培肥了地力。因此,从产量经济效益和环境效益方面综合来看,认为添加生物黑炭和有机肥部分替代化肥结合化肥施入土壤是最合理的施肥方式,值得在该区域进行推广和应用。
英文摘要:
      Based on chemical fertilizer application, we studied effects of combining application biochar and organic fertilizer on crops planting and nutrients loss in dryland, which aimed to further explore the effective ways of rational fertilization, high yield and high efficiency planting and the optimal utilization of resources in dry land crops under the conditions of high temperature and precipitation in the hilly region of southern China. Field plot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of biochar and organic fertilizer on maize yield, nitrogen-phosphorus loss derived by surface runoff and fertilizer utilization efficiency, and five fertilization treatments were set up, which were non fertilization (CK), only chemical fertilizer application (CF), chemical fertilizer combined with biochar (CF+B), chemical fertilizer combined with organic fertilizer (OF+CF) and chemical fertilizer combined with biochar and organic fertilizer (OF+CF+B). The results showed that compared with CF, the application of biochar or organic fertilizer could significantly increase the yield of 8.2%~11.1%, but the combination of organic fertilizer and biochar was the best, and the yield increased by up to 13.7%. Compared with the CF treatment, the treatment of CF+B could significantly reduce the runoff losses of nitrogen and phosphors by 15.9% and 24.2%, respectively, and significantly increase the aboveground accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus by 26.3% and 11.8%, respectively. The OF+CF treatment could significantly reduce the runoff losses of nitrogen and phosphorus by 17.5% and 25.0%, respectively, increase the nitrogen and phosphorus accumulations by 36.5%(P<0.05) and 8.2% (P>0.05), respectively. The runoff losses of nitrogen and phosphorus were significantly reduced by 33.3% and 35.2% in the treatment of OF+CF+B, respectively, and aboveground accumulations of these two nutrients were increased by 52.1% (P<0.05) and 29.0% (P>0.05), respectively, and this treatment presented the highest fertilizer utilization efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus, up to 49.1% and 26.4%, respectively. On the one hand, OF+CF+B could promote the growth of spring maize, increase vegetation coverage and enhance erosion resistance of the soil, significantly reduce the volume of surface runoff; on the other hand, this treatment could reduce runoff loss of soil nitrogen and phosphorus including the dissolved and particulate, increase soil fertility. Therefore, comprehensive considering the economic and environmental benefits, applicating biochar and organic fertilizer combined with partial chemical fertilizer is the most reasonable way of fertilization, and it is worth promoting and applying in the region.
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