文章摘要
郭鹏飞, 张筱茜, 韩文, 张坤, 刁明.滴灌频率和施氮量对温室西葫芦土壤水分、硝态氮分布及产量的影响[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(4):109~114,121
滴灌频率和施氮量对温室西葫芦土壤水分、硝态氮分布及产量的影响
Effect of Drip Irrigation Frequency and Nitrogen Application Rate on Soil Water and Nitrate Distribution and Yield of Greenhouse Squash
投稿时间:2018-02-04  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.04.017
中文关键词: 滴灌频率  施氮量  土壤质量含水率  硝态氮含量  产量  水分利用效率
英文关键词: irrigation frequency  nitrogen application  soil moisture  nitrate nitrogen  yield  water use efficiency
基金项目:国家星火重点项目(2015GA891008);国家自然科学基金项目(31360478)
作者单位E-mail
郭鹏飞1,2, 张筱茜1,2, 韩文1,2, 张坤1,2, 刁明1,2 1. 石河子大学农学院, 新疆 石河子 832000

2. 特色果蔬栽培生理与种质资源利用兵团重点实验室
, 新疆 石河子 832000 
diaoming@shzu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      2016年和2017年在北方寒旱地区日光温室西葫芦栽培中,灌溉定额为269.87 mm,设置2个滴灌频率(低频W1:7天1次,高频W2:2天1次)和2个氮素水平(适氮N1:375 kg/hm2,高氮N2:565 kg/hm2),研究不同处理对温室西葫芦土壤水分、硝态氮分布及西葫芦产量的影响。结果表明:(1)高频(W2)滴灌提高了0—40 cm土层的土壤水分,减少了水分的深层下渗。(2)高氮(N2)施肥各土层硝态氮含量较高,适氮处理配合高频次滴灌根区0—40 cm硝态氮含量维持在相对适宜水平,40—80 cm土层硝态氮含量相对较低,提高滴灌频率可降低氮素向深层淋失的风险。(3)在适氮(N1)水平下,西葫芦产量对于滴灌频率敏感,而对于高氮(N2)水平,提高滴灌频率,产量增加不显著。(4)在定额滴灌量下,滴灌频率对西葫芦水分利用效率的影响大于施氮肥对西葫芦水分利用效率的影响。(5) W2N1处理更有利于西葫芦的生长和产量的提高,推荐北方寒旱地区日光温室西葫芦施氮量为375 kg/hm2,灌溉频率为2天1次。
英文摘要:
      In 2016 and 2017, two drip irrigation frequencies (the low frequency W1:one irrigation every 7 days, the high frequency W2:one irrigation every 2 days) and two nitrogen levels (suitable N1:375 kg/hm2, high nitrogen N2:565 kg/hm2) were conducted in a solar greenhouse of squash in the northern cold and dry land, with the same irrigation quota of 269.87mm. The soil water and nitrate distributions and the yield of squash in solar greenhouse were studied. The results showed that:(1) W2 increased the soil water contents of 0-40 cm and reduced the deep seepage. (2) The soil nitrate contents were higher in all layers under N2, suitable nitrogen treatment combined with high frequency drip irrigation could maintain the nitrate contents at a relatively suitable level at 0-40 cm in the root zone, so the nitrate content in the 40-80 cm soil layer was relatively lower. The improved frequency of drip irrigation could reduce the leaching risk of nitrogen. (3) Under N1, squash yield was sensitive to irrigation frequency, however, for N2, the increasing irrigation frequency had no significant effect on yield, which indicated that the sensitivity of squash yield to irrigation frequency was low. (4) For a given fixed irrigation quota, the effect of drip irrigation frequency on water use efficiency of squash was greater than that of nitrogen fertilizer on water use efficiency of squash. (5) Taken together, W2N1 was more conducive to the growth of squash and the increase of yield. So, it is recommended that the nitrogen level in greenhouse drip irrigation was 375 kg/hm2, and the irrigation frequency was 2 days.
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