文章摘要
王磊, 董树亭, 刘鹏, 张吉旺, 赵斌.水氮互作对冬小麦光合生理特性和产量的影响[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):301~308
水氮互作对冬小麦光合生理特性和产量的影响
Effects of Water and Nitrogen Interaction on Physiological and Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Winter Wheat
投稿时间:2018-01-16  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.045
中文关键词: 水氮互作  冬小麦  光合生理特性  干物质  籽粒产量
英文关键词: water and nitrogen interaction  winter wheat  photosynthetic and physiological characteristics  dry matter  grain yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31071358,30871476);国家"十二五"科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD07B06-2);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0301001);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设项目(CARS-02-20);山东省现代产业技术体系项目(SDAIT02-08);山东省财政支持农业重大应用技术创新课题项目
作者单位E-mail
王磊, 董树亭, 刘鹏, 张吉旺, 赵斌 山东农业大学农学院, 作物生物学国家重点实验室, 山东 泰安 271018 stdong@sdau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      针对黄淮海地区农业生产中存在的水资源供应短缺,肥料利用率低等问题,设计试验研究水氮互作对冬小麦光合生理特性和产量的影响,为黄淮海地区高效利用水氮资源提供理论依据。2015-2017年以石麦15(SM15)为材料,利用水肥渗漏研究池,设计2个供水量水平(500,250 mm);2个施氮量水平(90,180 kg/hm2);2个氮肥类型(无机肥尿素,有机肥牛粪)。结果表明:2年试验内冬小麦旗叶光合生理特性变化规律相似,各处理的冬小麦旗叶光合速率,蒸腾速率,单叶水分利用效率在生育期内均呈现先上升后下降的趋势。水氮互作对小麦旗叶光合速率影响显著,W1(供水量500 mm)处理的旗叶光合速率明显高于W2(供水量250 mm)处理,施氮肥180 kg/hm2处理的旗叶光合速率明显高于施氮肥90 kg/hm2的处理,与施用无机肥相比,施用有机肥可保证冬小麦生育后期维持较高的旗叶光合速率。2年试验干物质积累量最多、产量最高的处理为W1M1(供水量500 mm,施有机氮肥180 kg/hm2)。综合冬小麦光合生理特性,籽粒产量,本试验条件下有机肥增产效果优于无机肥,冬小麦生育期供水量500 mm,施有机氮肥180 kg/hm2时冬小麦旗叶光合生理特性较优,获得较高产量。
英文摘要:
      Water resource deficiency and low nitrogen use efficiency are very common in Huang Huai-Hai Plain (HHP). In order to deal with these problems, the experiment, using SM15 as the tested winter wheat cultivar, with different water supplies and nitrogen fertilizer combinations (two types of fertilizers, two application rates, two water supply levels), was carried out in the lysimeters in 2015-2017. The photosynthetic characteristics of all the treatments showed the same variation pattern:the flag leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and leaf water use efficiency (LWUE) increased firstly and then decreased. The flag leaf photosynthetic rate of W1 water supply quantity of 500 mm was significantly higher than that of W2 (water supply quantily of 250 mm), and the flag leaf photosynthetic rate of 180 kg/hm2 was significantly higher than that of nitrogen application of 90 kg/hm2. Cormparing with the application of inorganic fertilizers, the application of organic fertilizer could ensure the higher growth rate of flag leaf photosynthesis. The grain yield and dry matter accumulation in the W1M1 (water supply quantity of 500 mm and application of organic manure with about 180 kg/hm2 treatment) were significantly higher than those in other treatments in the two growing seasons. According to the photosynthetic characteristics and grain yields of winter wheat, the experiment areas with organic fertilizers got higher yield and the rate of increasing production than those with inorganic. W1M1 was the best treatment, which had the highest yield and better photosynthetic characteristics.
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