文章摘要
代新俊, 夏清, 杨珍平, 高志强.氮肥后移对强筋小麦氮素积累转运及籽粒产量与品质的影响[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):289~294
氮肥后移对强筋小麦氮素积累转运及籽粒产量与品质的影响
Effects of Postponing Nitrogen Application on Accumulation and Transport of Nitrogen and Yield and Quality of Grain in Strong-gluten Wheat
投稿时间:2017-12-18  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.043
中文关键词: 氮肥后移  氮素转运  干物质积累  产量  品质
英文关键词: postponing nitrogen application  nitrogen transport  dry matter accumulation  yield  quality
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD23B04-2);国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503120);山西省回国留学人员重点科研资助项目(2015-重点4);山西省科技创新团队项目(201605D131041)
作者单位E-mail
代新俊, 夏清, 杨珍平, 高志强 山西农业大学农学院, 山西 太谷 030801 gaozhiqiang1964@126.com 
摘要点击次数: 562
全文下载次数: 543
中文摘要:
      为探索强筋小麦施用氮肥的合理基追比模式,在山西中部麦区水地小麦田,研究了氮肥基施、拔节期追施和孕穗期追施的不同比例(10∶0∶0,7∶3∶0,7∶2∶1,6∶4∶0,6∶2∶2,5∶5∶0,5∶3∶2)对强筋小麦CA0547氮素积累转运及籽粒产量与品质的影响。结果表明:(1)适当追氮对强筋小麦CA0547氮素与干物质积累转运及产量品质有显著的调节效应。(2)追氮能显著提高小麦拔节期后的含氮量,提高花前氮素转运量和花后氮素积累量,促进氮素向籽粒中的累积,同时增加花前干物质转运量和花后干物质积累量,为产量提高提供了物质基础。(3)籽粒氮素中约有68.38%~75.18%是来自花前氮素转运,籽粒产量中约有55.12%~70.04%是来自花后干物质积累。追氮通过显著增加穗数和穗粒数来提高产量,并提高氮素吸收效率和氮素生产效率。(4)追氮可提高籽粒醇溶蛋白、谷蛋白、总蛋白质和湿面筋含量,提高面筋指数和淀粉含量,改善谷醇比和直/支比,进而改善籽粒品质。相关分析亦表明,提高干物质花后积累量与花前氮素转运量可以改善小麦品质。(5)拔节期和孕穗期2次施氮效果不如拔节期1次追施。综合分析得出,在本试验条件下,施氮量150 kg/hm2时,基肥、拔节肥、孕穗肥比例为6∶4∶0能较好的协调产量品质之间的关系。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the reasonable ratio of topdressing gluten wheat with nitrogen fertilizer, the effect of basal nitrogen application rate, dressing rate at jointing stage and booting stage (10:0:0, 7:3:0, 7:2:1, 6:4:0, 6:2:2, 5:5:0 and 5:3:2) on the N accumulate and transfer and grain yield and quality of CA0547 (strong gluten wheat) were studied in the irrigated wheat field in central of Shanxi Province. The results showed:(1) Appropriate dressing N had a significant regulatory effect on accumulation and translocation of N and dry matter, yield and quality of CA0547. (2) Dressing nitrogen could significantly increase nitrogen content after jointing stage, N transfer amount pre-anthesis and N accumulation amount post-anthesis, promote accumulation of N in grain, increase dry matter transport pre-anthesis and dry matter accumulation post-anthesis, which provided a material basis for the increase of yield. (3) About 68.38%~75.18% of N in the grains came from nitrogen translocation pre-anthesis, and 55.12%~70.04% of yield came from dry matter accumulation post-anthesis. Dressing nitrogen increased yield by increasing the number of ears and per spike, and increased N absorption and production efficiency. (4) Dressing nitrogen could improve the contents of gliadin, gluten, protein and wet-gluten, improve the gluten index and starch content, improve glutenin/gliadin ratio and straight/branch ratio, and improve grain quality. Correlation analysis also showed that increase dry matter accumulation post- anthesis and pre-anthesis nitrogen translocation amount of vegetative organs could improve quality. (5) The effect of N application at jointing and booting stage was inferior to N application at jointing stage. Comprehensive analysis showed that N amount of 150 kg/hm2, at nitrogen ratio of 6:4:0 (base fertilizer:jointing fertilizer:boosting fertilizer) could better coordinate the relationship between yield and quality.
查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭