文章摘要
杜雄, 张永升, 王磊, 张立峰, 崔彦宏, 党红凯, 李科江.不同种植制度与土下微膜覆盖的小麦玉米水分利用效果[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):226~234
不同种植制度与土下微膜覆盖的小麦玉米水分利用效果
Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Maize and Wheat Under Two Different Cropping Systems and Soil-Coated Ultra-Thin Plastic-Film Mulching
投稿时间:2017-12-21  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.035
中文关键词: 小麦  玉米  种植制度  土下微膜覆盖  产量  水分利用效率
英文关键词: wheat  maize  cropping system  soil-coated ultrathin plastic film mulching  grain yield  water use efficiency
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0300908);国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD07B05);河北省现代农业产业技术体系玉米创新团队专项(HBCT2013020203,HBCT2013020206);河北省青年优秀拔尖人才专项;河北农业大学作物学科梯队建设基金项目(TD2016C204)
作者单位E-mail
杜雄1, 张永升1, 王磊1, 张立峰1, 崔彦宏1, 党红凯2, 李科江2 1. 河北农业大学农学院, 河北省作物生长调控重点实验室, 河北 保定 071001

2. 河北省农林科学院旱作农业研究所
, 河北 衡水 053000 
cyh@hebau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      针对华北平原北部水资源极度稀缺与小麦-玉米一年两熟生产水资源高耗的矛盾,在河北省平原代表性区域采用大田试验方法,在常规露地(-PM)和土下微膜覆盖(+PM)条件下设置冬小麦-夏玉米一年两熟(W-M)、冬小麦-夏玉米-春玉米两年三熟(W-M-M)2种种植制度,分析了不同种植模式的产量、水资源利用效果与土壤水分的时空变化动态。结果表明:土下微膜覆盖的冬小麦平均产量较露地降低3.9%~4.8%,夏玉米产量提高5.1%~6.0%,覆盖与露地的周年产量显著差异;春玉米较夏玉米产量提高16.9%~24.6%,但两年三熟较一年两熟产量在2年周期内平均降低了13.4%。常规一年两熟平均年耗水量859.9 mm,两年三熟周年比一年两熟平均减少耗水15.5%,因产量降低水分利用效率(WUE)未能显著提高;土下微膜覆盖可减少周年耗水200 mm,WUE提高28.4%~36.0%,覆盖的节水效果冬小麦季好于夏玉米季,两年三熟下减少非生育期(上年夏玉米收获至翌年春玉米播种)耗水是节水的关键所在。常规露地条件下一年两熟农田水分亏损两年累计616.6~799.0 mm,两年三熟比一年两熟可减少农田水分亏损38.6%~55.8%,覆盖比露地减少56.8%~73.5%,在年均降水560 mm条件下土下微膜覆盖结合两年三熟基本可实现地下水和农田水分的平衡。土下微膜覆盖和减少熟制可有效平衡土体水分垂直分布、减少土壤表层水分损失。实施周年农田土下微膜覆盖结合小麦玉米两年三熟种植,是有效缓解华北水资源危机与稳定粮食生产的新型实践方法。
英文摘要:
      To relieve the characteristic conflict that the extremely scarce water resource cannot satisfy the large water requirement for wheat and maize double cropping production in the North China Plain (NCP), a field experiment was conducted in Xinji County and Shenzhou County which are located in Hebei Plain and represent the northern part of the NCP. Under conventional (-PM) and SUPM (+PM) conditions, two cropping systems were set, which were a conventional annual winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system (W-M) and a winter wheat-summer maize-spring maize triple-cropping system over 2 years (W-M-M), respectively. The results indicated that under SUPM the average wheat grain yield decreased by 3.9%~4.8%, and that of summer maize increased by 5.1%~6.0% compared with un-mulching treatment. There was no significant difference between SUPM and no mulching in total yield in the 1st year. Compared with summer maize, the spring maize yield increased by 16.9%~24.6%. Howerer, in a 2-year cycle the triple cropping system sacrificed 13.4% of grain yield compared with the double cropping system. The average annual evapotranspiration (ET) of the conventional double cropping was 859.9 mm. Under the triple cropping system over 2 years, the ET was decreased by 15.5% and the water use efficiency (WUE) was not increased significantly due to its lower yield compared with the conventional double cropping. SUPM led to an annual ET decrease of 200 mm, and the WUE increased by 28.4%~36.0%. The results also demonstrated that SUPM was better at water saving in the winter wheat season than in the summer maize season. Reduced ET in the non-growing period (the gap from the previous summer maize harvest to subsequent spring maize sowing) was also the key factor for water saving under the triple cropping system. The field water deficit was 616.6~799.0 mm in the conventional double cropping over a 2-year cycle, and it was decreased by 38.6%~55.8% in the triple cropping without SUPM. Under SUPM the field water deficit was 56.8%~73.5% lower than that under non-SUPM treatments. In the triple cropping system under SUPM, both groundwater and field water balance were almost achieved with an average annual precipitation of over 560 mm. SUPM and reducing harvest frequency could balance the vertical distribution of soil water and reduce water loss near the soil surface. The triple cropping system under SUPM over 2 years could be regarded as a new method for sustainable agricultural water utilization and food production in NCP.
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