文章摘要
高哲, 张富, 高建恩, 赵传燕, 张宏奎, 戚继阳, 白玉琪, 李晓雅.黄土丘Ⅴ区典型小流域坝控区重力侵蚀分析与预测[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):107~112,125
黄土丘Ⅴ区典型小流域坝控区重力侵蚀分析与预测
Analysis and Prediction of Gravity Erosion in Typical Small Watershed in the Fifthsub-region of Huangtu Hilly Area
投稿时间:2018-04-12  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.017
中文关键词: 3S技术  淤地坝  重力侵蚀  侵蚀模数
英文关键词: 3S technology  check dam  gravitational erosion  erosion modulus
基金项目:陕西省自然科学基础研究计划重大基础研究项目(2016ZDJC-20);国家自然科学基金项目(41571051)
作者单位E-mail
高哲1, 张富1, 高建恩2,3, 赵传燕4, 张宏奎1, 戚继阳5, 白玉琪6, 李晓雅1 1. 甘肃农业大学林学院, 兰州 730070

2. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
, 陕西 杨凌 712100

3. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
, 陕西 杨凌 712100

4. 兰州大学草地农业科技学院
, 兰州 730000

5. 宁夏绿丰源工程咨询有限公司
, 银川 750000

6. 定西师范高等专科学校
, 甘肃 定西 743000 
zhangfu@gsau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      黄土丘Ⅴ区因其独特的土壤及地形和水文地质条件,使淤地坝坝控区的重力侵蚀严重,以至于毁坏耕地、道路和桥梁等,严重影响淤地坝效益的发挥。针对黄土丘Ⅴ区典型小流域坝控区在运行期间因沟岸崩塌和岸坡滑塌等产生的重力侵蚀导致淤地坝泥沙淤积量计算失真的问题,采用实测库容与3S技术生成库容资料和原设计库容曲线复核率定的三重复核分析方法,对运行期淤地坝坝控区域的重力侵蚀来源、诱发因素及预测进行分析。结果表明:(1)反映淤地坝淤积形态的形态判别系数α'为0.711~208.517,均值48.238,说明除阳山上小型坝小于临界数2.2为椎体淤积外,其他淤地坝为三角洲淤积;(2)坝控区形态参数如淤积面面积、周长、淤积体积及淤积形态判别系数等对重力侵蚀影响较大,给出了重力侵蚀量及侵蚀模数的计算关系;(3)重力侵蚀模数的范围184.79~812.80 t/(km2·a),均值360.68 t/(km2·a),坝控区淤积产沙模数的范围225~2 719 t/(km2·a),均值1 382 t/(km2·a)。重力侵蚀模数约占淤积产沙模数的26.1%,说明在黄土丘陵沟壑区第Ⅴ副区淤地坝的库区拦沙既有上游因水力侵蚀产沙又有库区自身重力侵蚀所致,淤地坝的运行管理既要防止重力侵蚀破坏现有耕地,又要防止淤地坝淤积出的土地被沟道基流苦咸水破坏,从而导致淤地坝淤地无法高效利用。
英文摘要:
      This paper aimed at the problem that the calculation of siltation amount of silt dam caused by gravity erosion because of gully bank collapse and slope collapse during the operation of 5th sub-region silt dam on the Loess Plateau. By the method of actual measurement and 3S technique generation and original design of reservoir capacity curve, the silt blocking amount and soil erosion mode of silt dam during running period were checked and analyzed. The results showed that, (1) The morphological discriminant coefficient (α'), which reflects the silt form of silt dam, is between 0.711 and 208.517, and the mean value is 48.238. it indicated that the other silt dams were Delta deposition except Yangshan, which were the Vertebral siltation because the critical number were less than 2.2; (2) The shape parameters of dam controlling area, such as area of silt surface, circumference, silt volume and discriminant coefficient of silt form, had great influence on gravity erosion. The calculation relation of gravity erosion amount and erosion modulus were given; (3) The range of the modulus of gravity erosion is 184.79~812.80 t/(km2·a), the mean value is 360.68 t/(km2·a), and the range of modulus of siltation and sediment production in dam controlling area was 225~2 719 t/(km2·a), with a mean value of 1 382 t/(km2·a).The modulus of gravity erosion accounts for 26.1% of the modulus of sediment production. The above results showed that the reservoir sediment came from the hydraulic erosion and the gravity erosion of the reservoir area in the 5th sub-region of the Loess Plateau. The operation and management of the silt dam should prevent the gravity erosion from destroying the existing cultivated landand silt of channel base floweroded dam land. These could result in the silt dam being not able to be used efficiently.
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