文章摘要
彭遥, 周蓓蓓, 陈晓鹏, 唐湘伟, 陶汪海, 王全九.间歇性降雨对黄土坡地水土养分流失的影响[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):54~60
间歇性降雨对黄土坡地水土养分流失的影响
Study on the Mechanism of Soil, Water and Nutrient Loss on Loess Slope Under Interval Rain Events
投稿时间:2017-12-05  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.009
中文关键词: 人工模拟降雨  间歇性降雨  黄土坡地  水土养分流失
英文关键词: artificial rainfall simulation  interval rain events  loess slope  soil, water and nutrient loss
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51239009,41371239);陕西省科技支撑项目(2013KJXX-38);陕西省自然科学基金项目(2015JQ5161);西安理工大学特色研究计划项目(2016TS013)
作者单位E-mail
彭遥1, 周蓓蓓1, 陈晓鹏1, 唐湘伟1, 陶汪海1, 王全九1,2 1. 西安理工大学, 西北旱区生态水利工程国家重点实验室培育基地, 西安 710048

2. 中科院水利部水土保持研究所
, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100 
happyangle222@gmail.com 
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中文摘要:
      坡面水土养分流失是研究农业非点源污染方面的核心问题,涉及土壤侵蚀、坡地水文和环境治理等方面的内容。以黄土坡地为研究对象,利用人工降雨模拟试验,分析间歇降雨时坡地产流-入渗-土壤侵蚀过程,以及通过预先在坡地喷施养分(NH4+-N、NO3--N、PO43--P),研究间歇降雨时坡面水土流失以及土壤溶质的迁移规律。试验采用针孔式人工模拟降雨器进行模拟降雨,对试验坡地间歇性进行3次降雨,雨强恒为100 mm/h,每次降雨历时60 min,降雨间隔时间60 min。结果表明:(1)3次降雨的初始含水率不同,但产流规律相似,降雨径流率均为先增大后趋于平稳。(2)3次降雨产生的泥沙累积量分别为250.91,100.20,79.76 g,第1次降雨的泥沙量远高于第2,3次。泥沙率先迅速增大到峰值然后缓慢减少,平均泥沙率随降雨次数的增多而递减。(3)对于非吸附性的NO3-、NH4+,3场降雨过程中溶质浓度均呈现由高降低并逐渐平稳的变化趋势;PO43--P浓度的变化规律却略显不同,降雨初期溶质浓度先短暂升高,然后再由高降低并逐渐平稳。(4)3次降雨的NH4+-N、NO3--N、PO43--P的径流总流失量分别为535.33,1 058.18,400.79 mg,其中NO3--N流失量最多,PO43--P流失量最少。随着降雨次数的增加,不同降雨次数下的NH4+-N、NO3--N、PO43--P径流流失量均逐渐减少,流失量较前次降雨分别降低了19%,14%、3%,62%和57%,28.3%。因此,通过对间歇性降雨条件下黄土坡地水土溶质迁移特征的研究,对揭示降雨-径流-土壤相互作用过程和土壤养分迁移机理具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      Soil water and nutrient losses have played an important role in the research on the expansion of non-point source pollution, which also involved in soil erosion, hillslope hydrology and environmental management. Based on the simulated rainfall experiments on loess slope with spray-applied fertilizer (NH4+-N,NO3--N,PO43--P), the process of infiltration, soil erosion, and the solute transport process of soil water and solute on slope under interval rain events were investigated. The simulated rainfall experiments were carried out for three interval rain events. Specifically, rainfall intensity was designed as 100 mm/h, and the rainfall lasted 60 min, the rainfall interval was 60 min. Results were as follows:(1) The initial soil moisture content under the three rainfall events were different, but the runoff processes were similar, and the runoff rate showed an increasing trend at first and then tended to be stable. (2) For three interval rain events, the accumulation amounts of sediment were 250.91, 100.20 and 79.76 g, respectively, and the amount of accumulated sediment yield in the 1st rainfall events was more than those of the 2nd and 3rd. The curve of sediment rate increased rapidly to the peak and then decreased slowly, and the average sediment yield decreased with the increase of rainfall frequency. (3) The concentrations of NH4+-N, NO3--N were changed from high to low and gradually tended to be stable in three rainfalls. Compared with the NH4+-N, NO3--N, the concentration of PO43--P increased at the beginning of rainfall, and then lowered and leveled off. (4) The total loss of NH4+-N, NO3--N and PO43--P in surface runoff of three rainfall were 535.33 mg, 1 058.18 mg and 400.79 mg, respectively, and NO3--N have the most loss and PO43--P have the least. With the increase of rainfall frequency, NH4+-N, NO3-N and PO43--P loss decreased gradually under different rainfall times, the loss amount were reduced 19% and 14%, 3% and 62%, 57% and 28.3% than previous rainfalls. The effects of three rain events on yellow soil of loess slope land reveal the interaction of rainfall, surface runoff and soil, and the mechanism of nutrient loss, also provide the scientific basis for control of water and soil erosion.
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