文章摘要
钟雄, 张丽, 张乃明, 年夫照, 贾广军, 岳献荣, 夏运生.滇池流域坡耕地土壤氮磷流失效应[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):42~47
滇池流域坡耕地土壤氮磷流失效应
Soil N and P Loss in Slope Farmland of Dianchi Watershed
投稿时间:2017-11-16  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.007
中文关键词: 间作  坡耕地  径流  侧渗  总氮  总磷
英文关键词: intercropping  slope farmland  runoff  lateral seepage  total nitrogen (TN)  total phosphorus (TP)
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41161041,41561057);院士专家工作站项目(2015IC022);云南农业大学土壤资源利用与保护省创新团队开放基金项目(2015HC018)
作者单位E-mail
钟雄1,2, 张丽1,2, 张乃明1,2, 年夫照1, 贾广军1, 岳献荣1, 夏运生1,2 1. 云南农业大学, 昆明 650201

2. 云南省土壤培肥与污染修复工程实验室
, 昆明 650201 
yshengxia@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了揭示间作对坡耕地上不同类型土壤径流和侧渗氮(N)、磷(P)浓度的削减及作用机制,通过径流和淋溶模拟试验,设置不同类型土壤(红壤和紫色土)、坡度(8°和15°)和玉米(Zea mays L.)/大豆(Glycine max L.)间作及各自单作对照,比较分析了各因素影响下径流和侧渗N、P浓度的变化情况。结果表明:(1)径流总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)在红壤不同坡度条件下,与单作大豆处理相比较,间作处理对径流TN浓度有不同程度的削减作用,分别降低27.5%和30.8%,且间作处理下TN浓度在坡度为8°时最低为0.75 mg/L;在紫色土8°条件下,与单作大豆、单作玉米相比,间作处理对径流TN浓度的削减效应更为明显,降幅分别为97.8%和89.8%,与单作玉米处理相比较,间作处理对径流TP浓度均有不同程度的削减作用;从8°至15°处理,径流TP浓度相应有所增加。(2)侧渗TN、TP在红壤8°和15°条件下,与单作玉米相比,间作处理对侧渗TN浓度也有较大的削减作用,分别降低87.9%和86.8%,且在8°时侧渗TN浓度最低为2.91 mg/L;在紫色土8°和15°条件下,与单作玉米处理相比,间作处理对侧渗TN浓度有约50%和80%的降幅,与单作玉米处理相比较,间作处理对侧渗TP浓度亦有不同程度的削减作用;其中红壤8°条件间作处理下侧渗TP浓度最高为0.25 mg/L,15°条件间作处理下TP浓度最低为0.07 mg/L。不同坡度条件下,土壤中N、P的输出量不同,且随着坡度增大,径流或侧渗中N、P总体的流失量也呈一定的增加趋势。玉米/大豆间作体系对径流和侧渗中的N、P有一定的削减作用;对于红壤和紫色土,由于其自身理化性质的不同,对坡耕地土壤中N、P流失的削减效应也不尽相同。因此,控制坡耕地氮、磷流失应综合考虑各种因素,对于保护滇池流域水环境具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      The present study aimed to reveal the effects of intercropping on soil runoff and lateral seepage nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) loss in different types of slope farmland. A runoff and leaching simulating experiment was conducted, different types of soil (red soil and purple soil) and slopes (8° and 15°) and planting patterns maize (Zea mays L.)/soybeans (Glycine max L.) intercropping and mono-maize and mono-soybeans) were designed, the changes of N and P concentrations in runoff and lateral seepage under the influence of various factors were analyzed. The results showed that:(1) In the case of the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) of runoff:under different slope in red soil, compared with mono-soybean, intercropping has different reduction effect on TN, the reductions were 27.5% and 30.8%, respectively, and the TN under intercropping was the lowest, which was 0.75 mg/L at the slope of 8°. Under the slope of 8° in purple soil, compared with mono-soybeans and mono-maize, the reduction of intercropping on TN of runoff was more obvious, and the reductions were 97.8% and 89.8%, respectively. Compared with mono treatment, intercropping had the different reduction on TP of runoff. However, the TP of runoff increased from the slope of 8° to 15°. (2) For the lateral seepage TN, TP, under the slope of 8° and 15° in the red soil, compared with mono-maize, intercropping had a greater reduction of the lateral seepage TN, which had 87.9% and 86.8% reduction, respectively, as well as the lowest concentration of TN was 2.91 mg/L at 8°; under the slope of 8° and 15° in purple soil, the reduction of intercropping on TN of lateral seepage were 50% and 80%, respectively. Compared with mono-maize, intercropping also had the different reduction on TP of lateral seepage; and the TP under the slope of 8° in red soil of intercropping was the highest with 0.25 mg/L, and the TP under the slope of 15° red soil of intercropping was the lowest with 0.07 mg/L. The output of N and P in soil was different under different slope treatments and the total loss of N and P in runoff or lateral seepage would increase with the slope increasing. In conclusion, the maize/soybean intercropping system had a certain effect on the reduction of N and P concentration in the runoff and lateral seepage. For red soil and purple soil, the reduction of the loss of N and P in the soil of slope farmland might be different because of their physicochemical properties. Therefore, controlling the loss of N and P in slope farmland should consider all kinds of factors, which is of great significance to protect the water environment of Dianchi Watershed.
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