钟雄, 张丽, 张乃明, 年夫照, 贾广军, 岳献荣, 夏运生.滇池流域坡耕地土壤氮磷流失效应[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):42~47 
滇池流域坡耕地土壤氮磷流失效应 
Soil N and P Loss in Slope Farmland of Dianchi Watershed 
投稿时间：20171116 
DOI：10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.007 
中文关键词: 间作 坡耕地 径流 侧渗 总氮 总磷 
英文关键词: intercropping slope farmland runoff lateral seepage total nitrogen (TN) total phosphorus (TP) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目（41161041，41561057）；院士专家工作站项目（2015IC022）；云南农业大学土壤资源利用与保护省创新团队开放基金项目（2015HC018） 
作者  单位  Email  钟雄^{1,2}, 张丽^{1,2}, 张乃明^{1,2}, 年夫照^{1}, 贾广军^{1}, 岳献荣^{1}, 夏运生^{1,2}  1. 云南农业大学, 昆明 650201
2. 云南省土壤培肥与污染修复工程实验室, 昆明 650201  yshengxia@163.com 

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中文摘要: 
为了揭示间作对坡耕地上不同类型土壤径流和侧渗氮（N）、磷（P）浓度的削减及作用机制，通过径流和淋溶模拟试验，设置不同类型土壤（红壤和紫色土）、坡度（8°和15°）和玉米（Zea mays L.）/大豆（Glycine max L.）间作及各自单作对照，比较分析了各因素影响下径流和侧渗N、P浓度的变化情况。结果表明：（1）径流总氮（TN）、总磷（TP）在红壤不同坡度条件下，与单作大豆处理相比较，间作处理对径流TN浓度有不同程度的削减作用，分别降低27.5%和30.8%，且间作处理下TN浓度在坡度为8°时最低为0.75 mg/L；在紫色土8°条件下，与单作大豆、单作玉米相比，间作处理对径流TN浓度的削减效应更为明显，降幅分别为97.8%和89.8%，与单作玉米处理相比较，间作处理对径流TP浓度均有不同程度的削减作用；从8°至15°处理，径流TP浓度相应有所增加。（2）侧渗TN、TP在红壤8°和15°条件下，与单作玉米相比，间作处理对侧渗TN浓度也有较大的削减作用，分别降低87.9%和86.8%，且在8°时侧渗TN浓度最低为2.91 mg/L；在紫色土8°和15°条件下，与单作玉米处理相比，间作处理对侧渗TN浓度有约50%和80%的降幅，与单作玉米处理相比较，间作处理对侧渗TP浓度亦有不同程度的削减作用；其中红壤8°条件间作处理下侧渗TP浓度最高为0.25 mg/L，15°条件间作处理下TP浓度最低为0.07 mg/L。不同坡度条件下，土壤中N、P的输出量不同，且随着坡度增大，径流或侧渗中N、P总体的流失量也呈一定的增加趋势。玉米/大豆间作体系对径流和侧渗中的N、P有一定的削减作用；对于红壤和紫色土，由于其自身理化性质的不同，对坡耕地土壤中N、P流失的削减效应也不尽相同。因此，控制坡耕地氮、磷流失应综合考虑各种因素，对于保护滇池流域水环境具有重要意义。 
英文摘要: 
The present study aimed to reveal the effects of intercropping on soil runoff and lateral seepage nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) loss in different types of slope farmland. A runoff and leaching simulating experiment was conducted, different types of soil (red soil and purple soil) and slopes (8° and 15°) and planting patterns maize (Zea mays L.)/soybeans (Glycine max L.) intercropping and monomaize and monosoybeans) were designed, the changes of N and P concentrations in runoff and lateral seepage under the influence of various factors were analyzed. The results showed that:(1) In the case of the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) of runoff:under different slope in red soil, compared with monosoybean, intercropping has different reduction effect on TN, the reductions were 27.5% and 30.8%, respectively, and the TN under intercropping was the lowest, which was 0.75 mg/L at the slope of 8°. Under the slope of 8° in purple soil, compared with monosoybeans and monomaize, the reduction of intercropping on TN of runoff was more obvious, and the reductions were 97.8% and 89.8%, respectively. Compared with mono treatment, intercropping had the different reduction on TP of runoff. However, the TP of runoff increased from the slope of 8° to 15°. (2) For the lateral seepage TN, TP, under the slope of 8° and 15° in the red soil, compared with monomaize, intercropping had a greater reduction of the lateral seepage TN, which had 87.9% and 86.8% reduction, respectively, as well as the lowest concentration of TN was 2.91 mg/L at 8°; under the slope of 8° and 15° in purple soil, the reduction of intercropping on TN of lateral seepage were 50% and 80%, respectively. Compared with monomaize, intercropping also had the different reduction on TP of lateral seepage; and the TP under the slope of 8° in red soil of intercropping was the highest with 0.25 mg/L, and the TP under the slope of 15° red soil of intercropping was the lowest with 0.07 mg/L. The output of N and P in soil was different under different slope treatments and the total loss of N and P in runoff or lateral seepage would increase with the slope increasing. In conclusion, the maize/soybean intercropping system had a certain effect on the reduction of N and P concentration in the runoff and lateral seepage. For red soil and purple soil, the reduction of the loss of N and P in the soil of slope farmland might be different because of their physicochemical properties. Therefore, controlling the loss of N and P in slope farmland should consider all kinds of factors, which is of great significance to protect the water environment of Dianchi Watershed. 
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