文章摘要
赵峥, 周德平, 褚长彬, 吴淑杭.不同施肥和秸秆还田措施对稻麦轮作系统碳氮流失的影响[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):36~41
不同施肥和秸秆还田措施对稻麦轮作系统碳氮流失的影响
Impacts of Different Fertilization and Straw Returning Measures on the Loss of Carbon and Nitrogen in Rice-Wheat Rotation System
投稿时间:2018-01-09  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.006
中文关键词: 稻麦轮作  秸秆还田  施肥  碳氮流失  DNDC模型
英文关键词: rice-wheat rotation  straw returning  fertilization  loss of carbon and nitrogen  DNDC model
基金项目:上海市科委科研计划项目(14391901502);上海市农业科学院卓越团队建设计划项目(农科创2017(A-03));低碳循环农业创新工程项目(沪农科攻字(2015)第1-3-2号)
作者单位E-mail
赵峥1, 周德平1, 褚长彬1, 吴淑杭1,2 1. 上海市农业科学院生态环境保护研究所, 上海 201403

2. 上海低碳农业工程技术研究中心
, 上海 201415 
wushuhang88@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      过量施肥和秸秆的处理问题一直是制约我国农业生态可持续发展的阻碍,并因此产生了诸多环境问题。采用DNDC模型对减量化施肥和秸秆还田措施下稻麦轮作系统中碳氮的迁移转化过程进行模拟,从而筛选适用于上海地区稻麦轮作系统中的最佳农田管理措施。结果表明:减量化施肥与秸秆还田均能显著影响稻麦轮作系统的氮素流失、温室气体排放和土壤碳储量变化。75% CK+SR处理即减量25%施肥量同时采用秸秆还田是适用于上海地区稻麦轮作系统中的最佳农田管理措施,能够在获得最佳水稻产量的同时有效减少41.67%的氮素流失量和51.85%的N2O排放量。虽然秸秆还田会增加稻麦轮作系统的CH4排放量,但同时也能显著增加土壤的碳储量。减量化施肥50%的处理(50% CK和50% CK+SR)则会导致水稻减产3.06%~9.90%。与目前上海地区传统的田间管理措施CK相比,75% CK+SR能够有效改善稻麦轮作系统的生态环境效益。研究结果为我国稻麦轮作系统碳氮流失的控制提供了参考。
英文摘要:
      Over-fertilization and straw returning were the vital issues that restrict the sustainable development of agricultural ecosystems in China. In this study, a process-based biogeochemical model-DNDC was adopted to simulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) loss from rice-wheat rotation system under different fertilization and straw returning measures, and then identify the best management practice in rice-wheat rotation system in Shanghai. The results indicated that reducing fertilization and straw returning could significantly impacts N loss, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and soil C storage in rice-wheat rotation ecosystem. Reducing fertilization by 25% combined with straw returning (75%CK+SR) was identified as the best management practice in rice-wheat rotation ecosystem by DNDC model, which could significantly reduce N loss by 41.67% and reduce N2O emissions by 51.85%, respectively, while maintained the best rice yields. Straw returning would increase CH4 emissions from rice-wheat rotation ecosystem, while significantly enhanced soil C storage. In addition, reducing fertilization by 50% (50%CK and 50%CK+SR) would lead to rice yields reduction by 3.06%~9.90%. Compared with traditional practice (CK), the identified best management (75%CK+SR) could efficiently improve ecological environmental benefit in the rice-wheat rotation. The results also provides reference for the control of C and N loss in the rice-wheat rotation in China.
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