文章摘要
任宗萍, 苏远逸, 李鹏, 李占斌, 汤珊珊, 郑淋峰, 靳涛.覆沙坡面径流冲刷试验研究[J].水土保持学报,2018,32(3):29~35,41
覆沙坡面径流冲刷试验研究
Runoff Scouring Experiment on Sand-covered Slope
投稿时间:2018-01-13  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2018.03.005
中文关键词: 放水冲刷  冻融作用  覆沙坡面  产流产沙
英文关键词: runoff scour  freeze-thaw  sand-covered slope  runoff and sediment yield
基金项目:国家重点研究发计划项目(2016YFC0402404);国家自然科学基金项目(41601291,41330858);陕西省水利科技项目(2017slkj-22);西安理工大学博士创新基金项目(310-252071505)
作者单位E-mail
任宗萍1, 苏远逸1, 李鹏1, 李占斌1,2, 汤珊珊1, 郑淋峰1, 靳涛3 1. 西安理工大学, 西安理工大学省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安 710048

2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100

3. 城固县水土保持工作站
, 陕西 汉中 723200 
lipeng74@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      通过室内模拟冷冻和放水冲刷试验,采用2个放水流量(1,2 L/min)、2个土壤处理(未冻坡面,冻结坡面)和4个覆沙厚度(0,1,2,3 cm)研究不同处理对覆沙黄土坡面产流产沙的影响。结果表明:(1)相同流量条件下,覆沙坡面初始产流时间延长,随着覆沙厚度的增加,延长效果越明显,而冻融作用使坡面初始产流时间缩短;不同处理坡面的产流产沙峰值均增大,并且产流量与产沙量的峰现时间具有不同步性。(2)不同流量条件下,不同处理坡面总产流量是对照坡面的1.02~1.28倍,冻结坡面和冻结-覆沙坡面的总产流量与对照坡面有显著差异(p<0.05),坡面总产沙量是对照坡面的1.97~10.94倍,冻结坡面、对照-覆沙坡面和冻结-覆沙坡面的总产沙量与对照坡面有显著差异(p<0.05)。(3)不同流量条件下,相同处理坡面产流强度随产流时间变化趋势大致相同,裸坡坡面产沙强度随着产流时间的变化趋势较为平稳,而覆沙坡面产沙强度波动程度较大,覆沙是影响坡面产沙过程的主要因素;相同流量条件下,不同处理坡面产流强度大致分为"快速上升-相对稳定"和"相对稳定"两种变化趋势。(4)相同流量条件下,裸坡坡面的产流强度受冻融作用的影响较大,冻融和覆沙处理对产沙强度的影响均较大,冻融作用在裸坡条件下对产沙过程的影响大于覆沙坡面,覆沙坡面在土壤未冻结的情况下对产沙过程的影响大于在土壤冻结的情况。
英文摘要:
      Through the simulations of freezing and water scouring test, two water discharges (1,2 L/min), two soil treatments (unfrozen slope, frozen slope) and four sand coverings (0, 1, 2, 3 cm) were compared to study the effects of the different treatments on runoff and sediment yield on the Loess slope. The results showed that:(1) Under the same flow conditions, the initial runoff time of the sand-covered slope was prolonged, and the extension effect was more obvious as the sand cover thickness increased, however, the initial runoff time was shortened by freeze-thaw action. When the peak value increased, the peak current time of output flow and sediment yield were asynchronous. (2) Under different flow conditions, the total output of different slopes was 1.02~1.28 times of that of the control slopes, then the total outputs of freezing slopes and freezing-covered slopes were significantly different from the control slopes (p <0.05). The total sediment yield of the slope was 1.97~10.94 times of that of the control slope. The total sediment yield of the frozen slope, the control-covered slope and the frozen-covered slope were significantly different from the control slope (p < 0.05). (3) Under the different flow conditions, the trend of runoff intensity of the same treated slope is roughly the same with runoff time. The trend of the runoff intensity of bare slope is steady with the runoff time; however, the runoff intensity's fluctuating degree is larger. Sand cover is the main factor affecting the sediment yield of slope. Under the same flow rate, the runoff intensities of different treatment slopes were roughly divided into two kinds, "rapid rise-relatively stable" and "relatively stable". (4) Under the same flow conditions, the runoff intensity on the bare slope was greatly influenced by the freeze-thaw action. The effects of freeze-thaw and the overburden slope on the sediment yield were large, and the effect of freeze-thaw on sediment yield was greater to bare slope than that to sand-covered slope. The effect of sand cover on the sediment yield was greater than that of the soil under unfrozen soil condition.
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